Among the earliest cultivated plants and flowering pansies occupy one of the first places in floriculture. Variety of colors and combinations of colors is incredible, from pure white to almost black with various shades of yellow, blue, red. In the center of the flower is often a slick original shapes and colors.
This plant is also called viola, and its scientific name - violet Vitrokka. But we in Russia it fondly referred to as "pansies" and this name is so common that only as "Annie" did not even say that. Legend has it that this flower has become after many years of waiting, faithful girl Annie, who conducted once the groom to protect home side, who have not returned. And now, many years ago, are pansies near the road, with the hope of "peering" into the distance.
Pansies in antiquity attributed property bewitch love: It is necessary to plant juice splash on the eyelids of a sleeping person and wait for him to wake up - love forever. French and Poles give pansies memory at parting. A tradition was born in England: the young man, feel free to declare his love, is enough to send his beloved this pressed flower and write his name.
Pansies - perennials in height from 15 to 30 cm, they are usually grown as biennials. Their showy flowers are the same shape as violets. Bush viola at the beginning of the growing season is compact, then it becomes a sprawling; main shoot is erect, fibrous root system. In the axils of the leaves form a pansy flower stalks, the ends of which are crowned with large single flowers with a diameter of 7 cm. Pansies special value lies in the early and abundant flowering.
In central Russia viola bloom in late April. In the culture of many common varieties of large-violet - complex hybrid obtained in the course of many years of breeding work. Many modern hybrids Viola resistant to heat and have the ability to bloom throughout the summer.
Pansies are hardy and quite shade-tolerant culture. However, when grown in partial shade although they bloom longer, but less abundant; flowers are smaller, not as bright. This plant prefers fertile and moist loam. On poor, dry, sandy soils viola flowers quickly shrinking, which is especially evident in the large-varieties. Also, do not plant pansies in the hollow where the melted water stagnate, as it leads to damping-off and plant death.
For a good development to regularly watering pansies in the dry season, as well as to feed their complex mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and trace elements. Seedlings violets useful fertilize ammonium nitrate and superphosphate (20-40 g per 1 sq.). Keep in mind that pansies can not tolerate fresh manure.
Prolongs flowering viola timely removal of faded flowers that retards the development of bolls - otherwise at Aging seed plant stops flowering, and then "Annie" quickly dies (standing dry, lifeless bush).
Violets are propagated in different ways, but the main ones are cuttings and seed propagation. Sowing seeds violet depending on the scheduled date of flowering performed at different times. To produce abundant blooms from early spring summer viola sown the previous year, around the end of June - beginning of July. To grow compact seedlings, seeds "Anyutka" sparsely sown in rows in nurseries or well-crafted ridge; shoots appear after 6-14 days.
2-3 weeks after germination pansy dive, and in late August transplanted to a permanent location (where you want to see the violets blooming the following year) at a distance of 20-25 cm between the plants. Sowing pansies summer made in such a way that the plants had well developed before the onset of autumn frosts, but not bloom.
To produce flowering plants for one year viola seeds sown seedlings in February. Sowing is carried out in a room or a greenhouse, preparing boxes or pots with a loose, moist, fertile soil. Seeds violets rarely spread over the surface of the substrate, sprinkle the top lightly with a thin layer of soil and place the container in a dark place.
Pansies germinate after 8-15 days at a temperature of 15-20 Â° C and adequate soil moisture (at a temperature above 25 Â° C and the substrate is too dry shoots do not appear). After the appearance of the first sprouts immediately reduce the temperature to 10 Â° C and put the plants into the sunlight, and after 10-20 days germination Viola dives. Grown pansies, designed for summer bloom, planted in a permanent place in early May.
Vegetative propagation method "Anyutok" - cuttings in the open ground. This method is simple, economical and effective enough; it allows you to get a lot of planting material. Start cuttings of violets in May and June: from the final cut bushes green shoots with 2-3 nodes. Cuttings are planted in a shady location close to each other at a depth of no more than 0.5 cm; after planting the cuttings watered and sprayed with water.
Approximately 3-4 weeks in cuttings develop roots of violets. With early cuttings pansies, grown from cuttings, bloom in summer or early autumn, and at a later summer cuttings - in the spring of next year. Propagation by cuttings violets rejuvenates plants, does not allow the bushes to grow strongly at the expense of flowering. One well-developed plants at one time, you can get about 10 cuttings, and over the summer - 30-45 pieces.
Pansies are widely used for floral decoration. They are planted as a border plant, carefully tended, planted in the balcony boxes, outdoor vases, prefabricated beds. Also widely used for framing viola planting low, and if desired, and tall trees (even house plants grown on shtambe) for framing planting tulips, daffodils, daisies, forget-me-, muscari and other colors. Alpine slides too rarely do without "Anyutok."
What is the secret of their success? The fact that, despite the seeming fragility charming violets very unpretentious, they can easily tolerate a transplant, even in a flourishing condition. They can be planted in the ground in the spring as soon as the snow melts - and then to late autumn, a variety of pansies will delight you with its flowering.