Guzmania (Guzmania) - decorative herb, appreciating for a beautiful rosette of long leaves with the tip bent down for a bright sophisticated "fountain" bracts, with the spectacular sotsvetie- "bump" with emerging from under the scales flowers.
The leaves of Guzmania, like all bromeliads, in the grounds of tightly stacked on top of each other and form a bowl to accumulate in the nature of water - this water is used as needed as the plant itself and the various inhabitants of the forest. Most often leaves Guzman painted monochromatic, but there are also plants with striped leaves (with longitudinal or transverse stripes). Rosette of leaves Guzmania is generally about half a meter in diameter, but found to be compact, and the larger specimens.
Spike in Guzman depending on the type can be long or short. Guzmania bloom continuously; their shiny, like patent leather, before flowering bracts are bright yellow, orange, pink or red, decorated with plants to 15-17 weeks. Duration of cultivation bought young plants is a year or a little more; after flowering motherboard socket Guzmania dies. Guzmania are widely used as a beautiful decoration of a room or office, used in the device of various compositions in the conservatory.
Genus Guzmania (Guzmania) belongs to the family of bromeliads, he was named after a Spanish botanist and pharmacist A. Guzman. The genus includes about 130 species of epiphytes and terrestrial plants, common in Central and South America. In the indoor horticulture grow some species, many colorful hybrids and varieties Guzmania.
The most common:
- Guzmania tongue (G. lingulata Mez.) With a dense rosette of numerous green leaves broadly linear, all equipped with the fine point scales. On its short thick peduncle upper leaves orange or red, form a wrapper around Multiflori inflorescences. Flowers on short thick legs, the helmet with white petals.
Varieties: 1. var lingulata - a large plant; inflorescence with red or pink erect leaves; blooms in March, August and December. 2. var. sardinalis - prisotsvetnye spreading leaves, bright red; inflorescence many-flowered; blooms in March, September. 3. var. minor - compact plant; prisotsvetnye leaves erect red; flowers numerous; blooms in February, July. 4. var. flammea - oliganthous inflorescence; blooms in July and August.
- Guzmania Donnell Smith (G. donnell-smithii D. Smith.) Has a loose rosette of green leaves, covered with pale scales. Erect stems and a lower part of a short dense pyramidal-paniculate inflorescence tightly closed bright red imbricate leaves with appressed scales on top. Blooms in April and May.
- Guzmania blood-red (G. sanguinea Mez.) With broadly linear leaves in a cup-socket thin bright red bracts. Spike is not developed; corymbose inflorescence of several flowers on pedicels has leaf-wrapper and shipped in the socket. Varieties: 1. var. sanguinea - bracts rounded, with a cusp; Petals white or greenish-yellow; blooms in April and August; 2. var. brevipedicellata - bracts pointed, helmet.
- Guzmania musaika or mosaic (G. musaica) has long leaves, forming a sprawling outlet Peduncle straight, shorter than leaves the outlet. The leaves on the flower stem broadly, pointed, bright pink. Prime capitate inflorescence carries about two dozen yellowish-white flowers, the base of which covers a wide bright pink bracts. Varieties: 1. var. musaica - leaves light green with thin irregular lines; Flowers in June, September. 2. var. concolor - leaves monochrome. 3. var. zebrina - leaves with wide stripes.
- Guzmania Nicaragua (G. Nicaraguensis). Her tongue-, narrowed to the top of the bottom leaves are covered with small, blednookrashennymi appressed scales. Over time, they get naked; with longitudinal fine red touches. The leaves form a dense rosette goblet with immersed inflorescence. On a spike lower leaves narrowly linear, top - broadly with cusp, bright red or red-brown. Prime fusiform oliganthous inflorescence bears yellow flowers on short stalks. Flowering in March, May.
- Guzmania odnokolosaya (G. monostachia) has numerous yellow-green leaves that form a dense rosette. Bottom leaves are pale, with indistinct punctate scales, which soon fall off. The inflorescence is an elongated multi-row spike, pointed at the apex; the flowers are white. Bare stems shorter than leaves, with pointed leaves imbricate, lower - pale green, the upper - with red touches.
Bracts of fertile flowers in blednookrashennye, with noticeable brown longitudinal strokes, and in sterile - bright red, rarely white. Fruit - a cylindrical box with a white tuft. Varieties: 1. var. monostachia - leaves monochrome; bracts blednookrashennye, with dark brown longitudinal strokes; blooms in June and July. 2. var. variegata - green leaves with white strokes. 3. var. alba - leaves monochrome; lower bracts green top - white.
Very thermophilic Guzmania placed in bright rooms with warm moist air, avoiding contact with the plants to direct sunlight. Before flowering Guzman requires high (above 25 degrees), the temperature; for already flowering plants or Decorative leef mild enough (at least 12 degrees higher than 20 В° C) temperature.
Watering substrate mild winter, and during the active growing season of plants in spring and summer - is plentiful, with a daily spraying of the leaves. The soil should be watered only when dry, as Guzmania not tolerate over-wetting of the substrate, so they need good drainage. Central funnel Guzmania leaves in hot weather should always be filled with soft water (preferably pure rain); every two months, the water in the cup was changed to a fresh one.
Guzmania grown in small pots or baskets (12-16 cm diameter) in a mixture of crushed roots fern sphagnum in a ratio (3: 1); or, in a mixture of fibrous peat, charcoal, turf-clay soil and sand (1: 1: 0.5: 0.5); or, in a mixture of the powdered bark of coniferous species, and sphagnum peat with the addition of charcoal; or: a mixture of leaf soil, humus, peat and sand (1: 1: 2: 0.5) with the addition of pine bark and peat moss.
Guzmania transplant is not required, as the mother plant dies after flowering. From March to August Guzman fed twice a month; recommended dressing fertilizer low concentration through the leaves (by spraying liquid fertilizer) or with irrigation.
Propagated by seeds and young Guzmania layering. Shoots, forming the base of the mother plant, first allowed to grow, and in the age of a few months young Guzmania separated and deposited into small pots with sphagnum or light substrate (can orchid); perpetuate warm. Developing Guzmania rolled over into larger pots with a substrate. Dry air Guzman may appear pests: mealybugs, scale insects, spider mites, phylloxera.