Dionaea (Venus flytrap).
Dionaea muholovnaya (Dionaea muscipula), also known as "Venus Flytrap" - the most famous plant-"predator" on the North American continent. This is the only in-kind. Adult specimen flycatchers (she catches and absorbs not only flies, but mosquitoes and other insects) usually does not exceed 15 cm. Venus flytrap spring blooms white flowers on a long stalk.
Native environment carnivorous Dion - peat bogs Quagmire in Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina (USA). Venus flytrap grow in an area known as "Savannah" - consisting of lowland relief "islands" ranging from 1 to 5 hectares (in the form of a virgin kept no more than fifty).
How Dionaea catches insects.
Venus flytrap trap consists of two halves, wings, vaguely reminiscent of the structure of its drop-down shells of mollusks. Along the edges of the valves are two rows of teeth. On the rim of the leaf, along the inner row of teeth trap located gland. They produce and release pleasantly smelling nectar that attracts insects into the trap. Each of the two inner flat surfaces trap Dion has three hairs-triggers.
If insects are in the process of absorption of nectar repeatedly touch these hairs, the trap begins to close. First trap Venus flytrap is only slightly covered, and insects have the ability to move back and forth within the trap. If the insect is small, in principle, it has a chance to avoid the unfortunate fate of being eaten and saved proshmygnuv through the hole between the teeth.
When this happens, stops stimulation triggers - and the trap again fully revealed (about a day). This response mechanism is a must Dion is it helps prevent the loss of time for a "false alarm" trap because of interference (for example, drops of rain brought by the wind sticks, twigs or chitin shells of insects).
But if you fell into a trap trap Dion bug could not get out of it, it triggers the stimulation continues, the trap closes more dense. Begins the process of digestion. From glands located on the inner surfaces of the flaps trap Venus flytrap, abundantly secretes digestive juice - insect completely drowning in the liquid. The trap remains closed for a few days. When she finally disclosed, the light appears only undigested chitin shell of the former insect.
Each trap Venus flytrap is designed around three of the digestive process, and then it dies. In the photo captures a successful hunt: inside the collapsed folds trap Dion on clearance are visible at once two large prerevarivayuschiesya victim!
Planting and transplanting Dion.
For planting Dion use a mixture consisting of 75% sphagnum moss, and 25% of the mix for rooting cuttings. The acid moss ideally - 5.5; measure TDS (total amount of dissolved salts) should be zero.
Before placing the plant in the prepared mixture, thoroughly moisten it. The best time for planting and transplanting Dion - early spring (at that time Venus flytrap starts growing). The optimum size of the pot depends on the Dion: on the one hand, it should be capacious enough to plant the whole year it was comfortable to live in it, but at the same time, the pot and should not be too large, because the Venus flytrap - just a miniature plant.
Lighting Venus flytrap.
Dionaea loves a bright location but not the hot sun. Windowsill in the house, where the morning sun misses the midday sun in summer and winter - a great place to put your Venus flytrap. If such a place does not have the right light, the Dion need supplementary lighting. Venus Flytrap is grown in terrariums, greenhouses, closing in glass jars on glazed loggia. Some plant lovers quite successfully grown Dion and outdoors.
Follow very closely the humidity of the substrate, which is growing Venus flytrap: never let it dry out! During the spring, summer and fall all the time necessary to keep the pot with Dionaea on poddonchike with water (water should cover the drainage hole of the pot).
Take care of the purity of the water (often me) and its softness, while Venus flytrap will feel fine. Water for irrigation Dion is better to take the rain (thawed), distilled or purified by means of filters. Winter and keep the substrate moist, but water should not be left in the pan for a long time.
Humidity and air temperature for Dion.
Optimum level of humidity for Venus Flytrap - 70-90%. The easiest way to reach it when the content of the plants in the terrarium or suitable size glass jars. Dionaea loves wet-cool content with an abundance of fresh air. If the temperature is high (30 degrees and above), flycatcher can completely stop growing.
After this stress the plant resumes growth with extreme reluctance. By the way, the temperature in the natural habitat Dion kept at around 40 degrees during the summer. But there Venus flytrap not stop growing because of the fact that the land always remains cool (cool moisture comes from the depths of the capillaries and, evaporating, supports cool soil).
Despite the biological characteristics of the species, not "feed" their specially Venus Flytrap flies or other insects. Otherwise, you're just going to kill her "predator". Dionaea itself should "enjoy the excitement of the chase" - at the same time fully stand out digestive juices to further absorption of the victim.
If you still think that the plant is "starving" - Feed the half of it with a solution of fish emulsion (water the soil in the container should be!). Main power flytrap gets out of the peat mixture in which it lives.
Period of rest Dion.
By the winter of Venus flytrap falls into a state of rest, completely stopping its growth. You even can sometimes seem that the plant dies. Do not worry, this impression is deceptive. This is - a natural stage of life cycle for Venus flytrap. Period of rest she just needs to have a rest after a winter forces for the full growth of new traps, flowering and seed formation. Your job during the winter - to remove dead skin from Dion traps and leaves, and spring must grow new!
Pests and diseases Dion
- Aphids manifested in curved and deformed new traps Venus flytrap. Means of struggle: spray with any drug against aphids.
- Spider mite - a fairly widespread attack with warm dry content of Dion.
Means of struggle: to carry out irrigation plant preparations against ticks.
- Black sooty fungus can appear on Dion, if it resides in an extremely wet and humid environments.
Means of struggle: to correct errors in the care and use of a suitable fungicide.
- Gray mold (Botrytis) - on the plant as a result of fungal infection appears rot, which is then covered with gray fuzz. Means of struggle: to remove the damaged parts of flycatchers, and then process the whole plant and soil substrate with one of the available systemic fungicides.
- Bacterial defeat - it is not a disease, but a manifestation of physiological costs. It happens that the trap flycatchers can not "digest" caught an insect, and then it begins to decompose. This process can go on the trap, go ahead and even destroy the whole plant.
Means of struggle: in such cases, you need time to assess the situation and remove the "problem" trap.
Venus flytrap propagated by dividing the bush, leaf cuttings, sowing seeds. Seed propagation. Dionaea blooms in the late spring small white flowers on a spike (15-20 cm), high above the rosette of leaves with traps. Under natural conditions, pollinators are insects Venus flytrap. When cultured recommended artificial pollination of flowers Dion to increase zavyazyvaemost seeds.
For seeds flowers must be pollinated by hand: a soft brush type pollen and attach it on the pistil. This procedure should be performed with each flower as soon as it is fully revealed, and it is ripe pollen. After the appearance of the ovary seeds Dion will need to mature for 3-4 weeks. Each boll contains up to 30 seeds. Mature seeds Venus Flytrap hard, black, half the size of a grain of wheat. Further, they can be sown immediately or packed and stored until planting. Seed germination Dion maintained throughout the year; optimal timing of planting - 3-4 months after pollination.
If you have Teplicka heating and lighting, the seeds of Dion can be in September-October in pure peat, but you have to be absolutely sure that this type of peat is not subject to caking. If in doubt, then add the shredded peat moss, sphagnum moss.
Lay seeds Venus Flytrap gently on the surface of the substrate and sprinkle a thin layer of sifted peat. Watering plantings produce better bottom. Teplichku set in a bright place (but not in the sun) and cover its ventilation openings. Soil heating is not only essential for seed germination, but also during the winter.
Fresh seeds germinate Dion during the month. Watch out for wet substrate: it should never dry out. If necessary, use it for hydration and moisture to the air pan with a wet gravel, where it is necessary to add water to the extent of its evaporation.
With the onset of spring shoots can gradually wean Dion from teplichku. Pick seedlings Venus flytrap need to do very careful not to damage the roots. Therefore it is better to hold the pick directly into individual pots filled with a mixture of adult plants. In a plastic pot of 75 mm was placed at swordplay 4-5 plants.
Venus Flytrap not have the time to "exploit" of a portion of the "production" of seeds. Therefore, if you suddenly notice that produced seeds Dionaea was suddenly feel funny - so she had exhausted its reserves to seed formation.
Reproduction dividing the bush. Over time, the Venus flytrap is aging. One of the signs of aging can be the fact that she had formed a few points of growth. Then you need to remove the pot from the whole plant, shake off the substrate from the roots and break it down delÑ‘nki. Usually it turns out quite easily. Sometimes delÑ‘nki fused with each other - to separate them, need a sharp clean knife or a new blade (infection prevention).
For the successful separation of the Bush Dion certain amount of skill is needed to make sure we do not hurt the trap and not to provoke their activation. Restrain the temptation "manually" run the traps Venus flytrap. Useless slamming their only weakens the plant too much energy goes into operation of the traps, but: food, there is not! It turns out that the plant was "bothered for nothing."
If you do not stop the anxiety of fruitlessly traps Dian this reasonable argument, then here's another one: each trap closes a limited number of times. And then bother to trap turns black and dies, reducing the decorative effect of the whole plant.