Maidenhair (hair of Venus).
In today's world there are about 300 genera and more than 10,000 of their species. Ferns inhabit all continents except Antarctica.
Places where you can find varieties of ferns, very different - from the water surface of tropical rivers to heat seared bare rocks. Even the ferns differ strikingly - some of them have a length of only a few millimeters, while others grow up to 25 meters in height and have a diameter of up to half of the barrel.
Once ferns used for food, making them the roots of bread and adding a fern in the food raw. Residents of Albion made from fern rooftops. Ash leaves of bracken - a source of potassium.
Perhaps the mystery of these plants is also associated with the legends that envelop them even from the distant past, when our ancestors were much closer to nature and considered ferns growing in the woods, mysterious plants. That only is the legend of the Sorcerer, mysterious fern blossom, which blooms only in the night of Ivan Kupala and fulfills the desires of those who found him, or traditions, which stipulate that a fern live fairies.
World ferns diverse, but we tend to be familiar only with those of their species that can grow in our apartments (they are residents of tropical rain forests, where at least a little survived the climatic conditions of the past), as well as with the ferns, which can be found in our forests.
Maidenhair ferns representatives - one of the most beautiful and the most common ornamental plants. The genus name comes from the Greek "adiant" ("and" - "no", "diant" - "wet"). Surface of the leaves maidenhair has a hydrophobic property that the water droplets run off the leaves, without wetting them. More maidenhair called "lady's (girl's) hair" because of the black thin stems, which laced soft green blanket spread out small leaves, called fronds. On the underside of the leaf can be seen maidenhair sori (brown spots) - a spore-bearing zone. Fern has a horizontally creeping rhizome brown-black.
In decorative floriculture common:
- Adiantum capillus-veneris - one of the best known species, the classic "hair lady"; its light green foliage is available on the black flexible petioles up to 30 cm.
- Adiantum polifilum - it is the largest species with large roots and stems, about a meter long; his black hard stalks covered with contiguous leaves.
- Adiantum raddiantum has blackish stems with numerous light-green leaves; There are many varieties of this fern.
Maidenhair not like bright sunlight, it is best to place them on the western or eastern windows. They need to be protected from direct sunlight, prefer partial shade. These ferns do not tolerate drafts and sudden cold air. Feel bad maidenhair dusty impregnated tobacco smoke indoors.
The optimum temperature for maidenhair - 15-20 degrees (in the period of growth of assets - 20 degrees in the dormant period - 15 degrees). At higher temperatures the content of maidenhair leaves become pale, yellow, dry and break.
Watering and humidity.
Watering is an important component in the development of plants. Water for irrigation maidenhair should be a soft, lime. Can be used for irrigation rainwater. Roots maidenhair should never dry out, but the excess water is harmful to these plants. Winter watering maidenhair need less, but avoid drying earthen coma.
In addition, the plant should be placed away from radiators, cookers - dry air is harmful to the maidenhair. Therefore humidity around the flower should be increased, especially in the summer. Maidenhair need to spray twice a day - it will increase the humidity of the air, as well as help keep the fern clean.
Summer maidenhair should be fed with liquid fertilizer every two weeks.
Ferns are transplanted in the spring, if the pot becomes too cramped because they grow well in pots closely. Soil mixture is composed of two parts peat and part of leaf, added to the looseness of the sand. You can add a bit of substrate pounded charcoal and fertilizer containing calcium. The soil at the roots of maidenhair should be loose.
In the spring of old plants can sit down, hands neatly dividing overgrown roots maidenhair and with them the aerial parts. Before dividing the need to give someone a good earthen dry, so as not to harm the roots. Root collar maidenhair can not bury that can lead to rotting of young fronds. There is another method of reproduction fern - spores, but this is very time consuming processes.
Hazards and control measures.
Maidenhair - very delicate plants, so unfavorable conditions (lack of moisture, dry air, too wet, poor ventilation, low or high temperature content) can cause their death. Drying of leaf tips maidenhair occurs from exposure to drafts, from the flow of warm, dry air near a heating duct.
If maidenhair stands in direct sunlight, its leaves become dry, pale, brittle, so the plant should be pritenyat. The same characteristics are observed when there is insufficient feeding fern. Leaf yellowing occurs in maidenhair with insufficient irrigation and stagnant air, if the room is not ventilated.
When too abundant irrigation leaves maidenhair become faded and sluggish, and if still cold, these conditions can lead to root rot fern. If some of the leaves are withered maidenhair or damaged a bush, do not rush to throw it away: cut dry leaves, water the substrate - after a while the plants will be new leaves.
The leaves of ferns are different from other special chemical plants, so they are rare pests. Sometimes maidenhair fern aphid attacks, it settles on the bottom side of the wai. As a result, the leaves first turn yellow, then turn brown and fall off. To combat aphids use a soap solution, with severe cases are treated aktellikom. Brown Quadraspidiotus perniciosus sometimes contaminate the lower leaf surface; it can be removed with a brush dipped in alcohol.
Just do not confuse scale insects with spores that are always arranged in regular rows. For the prevention of pests periodically can perfuse maidenhair tobacco water.