Fern (breeding and care).
Ferns - elegant decorative foliage plants with a variety of leaf structure, called vayami. With its rich greenery, ferns are increasingly common in homes. For indoor gardening are of interest ferns derived from shady tropical forests: they are lush and varied in form than the northern species.
However, still very few species of this rich representatives of the family are used in domestic gardening. Only Nephrolepis and maidenhair became seriously compete with many evergreens, including with palm trees.
By grace and tenderness forms wai with ferns can not compare any other plant. Ferns - one of the oldest plants in the world. There are about 8,000 species of ferns, but are included in the culture of about 200; among them there are plants of striking beauty.
Reproduction of ferns.
Ferns - mostly terrestrial, aquatic plants rarely with two generations. Sexual generation (gametophyte) and asexual generation (sporophyte) are very different from each other and exist independently.
Sexual generation of ferns over prothallia is a small green seedlings in the form of a round plate (sometimes consisting of only a single layer of cells) carrying the genitals - antheridia and archegonia. Zarostok lives in moist soil in the shade. According to a fertilized egg grows prothallia archegonium of the sporophyte, which is usually many years of more or less large plant having a stem and rhizome with thin roots.
On the trunk or rootstock formed leaf vai ferns. On conventional vayah (and some ferns - on special vayah carrying only a fern sporangia) spores are formed. Fern spores are easily carried by wind over long distances and, once in favorable conditions, grow into zarostok.
Dispute - a single cell in the shell, which has the protoplasm and nucleus. Spores are formed on vayah with the underside of the leaf, in the sporangia. Sporangia collected in groups called sori, and sit on the dais cells wai. SORUS sometimes covered with special bract-induziem (induzy). Sporangium has a leg (it is like a bag with the spores on the stem).
Sheath it consists of thin-walled cells, among which cells semicircle greatly thickened on an inner side of the walls. These thickened cells during maturation dispute shrivel and break the thin-walled shell, releasing spores. In one sporangia may be up to 64 spores per plant and they may be up to several million.
To collect the spores are usually cut and dried vayu to soon parted sporangia. But it is better not to dry and scrape off all the sori with fresh leaves - then spores germinate faster.
For sowing spores take small bowls clean, put on the bottom of the shards, then sand. Soil poured layer of 0.5 cm, spaced from the upper edge of the bowls at 1-0.5 cm. Composition of soil: 1 part peat, 2 parts of heather, 2 pieces of leaf, 1.5 parts sand. The soil in the bowl well shed and covered with glass. Before sowing, the substrate is heated strongly (up to 100 degrees) to kill him in the local fern spores and insect larvae.
If possible, it is best steamed soil in the microwave; of course, should not be saucer steel! Bowl with well spilled substrate placed in a microwave for a strong power for 2-3 minutes; treatment time depends on the bowls and obÑ‘ma ground. Then feel around the ground: if it is not hot enough (it should burn the hand), put a bowl in the microwave for a while yet. Before sowing, land disputes must be cool.
Spores were plated in a place where there are no sporonosyaschih ferns. In one indoor spores were seeded one day only one type ferns. Need to take a leaf fern above the soil gently scrape with a knife at the bottom of the sheet.
After seeding each kind of fern it is necessary to wash your hands and dry with a towel, that they are not left argument. Bowls with crops covered with glass set in a greenhouse on a windowsill. Watered crops fern moderately, only the pallet. Glass covering bowls, you need to wipe from the condensate.
Disputes conventional ferns sprout in a month or two, and tree - a year or two. First, on the surface of the earth in the bowl appears grainy green plaque - it germinated spores. Then, growing, granular plaque grows into a mass of heart-shaped plates, prothallia.
Fern spores germinate in the green thread that rapidly dividing, growing in the green heart-shaped plate, consisting for the most part, of a single layer of cells. This plantlets-plate on the bottom side has rhizoids - Tapered cell formation serving for the absorption of water. From the bottom of this plantlets has genitals - antheridia and archegonia (archegonia - near the heart-shaped recess, antheridia - between rhizoids). In archegonia immersed in tissue prothallia, there is the egg and sperm in antheridia-.
When mature antheridium sperm comes out of it. They float freely in the water (dew, rain, moisture, condensation). Obtained allocated archegonia secret sperm swim up to it, get inside archegonium and fertilize the egg it. The nucleus of the sperm fuses with the egg cell with the nucleus. 6-8 archegonia prothallia for fertilization embryo sporophyte develops in only one, the rest are killed.
To prothallia strengthened, bowls with fern shoots placed in a lit and dry place. A week later, a wooden fork and peg spend pick prothallia groups (20-30 pieces) in sterilized soil with the same composition as in the crop. Raspikirovat in bowls prothallia watering from a watering can with a fine strainer and cover with glass.
Bowls set on the north window. Keep prothallia fern relatively dry. Bowls with matured prothallia few days slightly dried. After that, on a sunny day they sprayed liberally. Under these conditions, fertilization occurs vigorously.
Usually embryo sporophyte appears on prothallia 2-3 weeks after fertilization. In tree species, it grows only in a year. Only the first time, and very briefly, the sporophyte is powered by prothallia. By rooting when roots develop, sporophyte switches to self-catering. The embryo consists of leaf, stem and primary root. Primary root soon dies, and from the lower part of the stem appear adventitious roots.
The shape of the first leaves of ferns are very monotonous. They are usually three-four-blade. Learn to view fern shoots almost impossible. Prothallia too monotonous for the most part, although some genera of ferns, they have some differences. For example: maidenhair prothallia have mostly corrugated edge; prothallia almost all of epiphytic ferns (platitserium) have brown rhizoids. Care prothallia with sprouted sporophytes is watering and maintenance of them in drier air.
Upon reaching the sporophyte 2-3 cm of diving in the loose soil of the same composition as that of a crop. However, the soil is screened so that only the particles were ground with a diameter of 3-5 mm. In this same mixture was added charcoal and coarse sand. Dive plants in bowls at a distance of 2-3 cm. Earth in the bowl watered and set them on the north window. When the seedlings begin to crowd each other (usually within 1.5-2 months), they are seated in one of the pots with a diameter of 7 cm in the same soil with the addition of 1 \ 2 of the loose sod land. Pots of ferns set in the shade.
Ferns growing in the rooms, usually come from tropical and subtropical countries, so they should be protected from the cold. But too high temperatures with humidity should not be, as this will cause a disease of plants and create favorable conditions for the emergence of pests. In addition, you may receive blackening wai and their decay.
To keep the ferns are most suitable windows, illuminated by the sun in the morning or in the evening. In any case, ferns can not tolerate direct sunlight, although scattered light they love. Needs regular watering; earthen room should always be slightly moist. With the loss of green ferns (due to overdrying the substrate) should be cut off all the leaves, put the plant on a sunny sites and contain earth com moderately moist. After some time out of the land will have new leaves.