Extensive genus Pelargonium Geraniaceae family includes about 350 species, native to South Africa. Among them are herbs, subshrubs, shrubs and succulents. The genus name "pelargonium" derives from the Greek "pelargos" - a crane, for the similarity of an elongated column after pollination pistil flower Pelargonium crane with beak.
Pelargoniums grown from seed brought back by botanists, travelers began to spread in Europe since the end of the XVI century and immediately became a favorite of gardeners for elegance bushes and abundant long flowering. In Russia, pelargonium appeared later under the name "geranium" and became an inmate of the indispensable winter gardens and greenhouses of wealthy people, and then was declared "a symbol of middle-class life" - for what was on almost every window. In the old Russian books on floriculture pelargonium called "Crane's nose."
In England, and later in France, Germany, the United States and other countries turned active breeding research to produce new forms and varieties of Pelargonium: were obtained beautiful variegated Pelargonium; dwarf forms; varieties with white, two-color and double flowers. Some Pelargonium grown as medicinal and essential oil plants (leaves contain geranium oil). Leaves many scented pelargonium used in cooking: they are added in the preparation of apple jelly, puddings and creams.
In Western Europe, no flower garden or a balcony is not complete without a pelargonium, commonly seen its bright cap inflorescences. In warm dry areas of southern Europe Pelargonium perfect bloom and grow as a perennial shrub. Simplicity, huge variety of pelargonium varieties with a lot of colors and shapes of flowers, they bloom almost all year round make Pelargonium attractive for growing in the open air, and in the culture room. Miniature pelargoniums grow up to 13-15 cm, dwarf does not exceed 20 cm, and the stam reach of human growth.
All pelargoniums are divided into 3 groups with fuzzy boundaries between groups: flower beds (good and growing on beds and in-room), greenhouse (poor growing in the open field) and Decorative leef (with showy leaves).
Today have spread throughout the world as decorative vases flowering plants the following types:
- Pelargonium macranthon or English (folded leaves with serrated edges, thick umbrellas large flowers - pink, red, white, purple with dark spots on the petals or tiger coloring);
- Pelargonium Zonal garden (rounded-reniform slaboopushÑ‘nnye leaves, divided into zones horseshoe stripes of white, yellow or brown, the flowers are white, pink, red, salmon, crimson)
- Pelargonium plyuschelistny (hederacea leaves, large single or semi-double flowers are white, pink or red);
- Scented Pelargonium (small flowers, in pattern-indented or pinnate leaves, and small-leaved form of the leaves with fitontsidnymi properties and wonderful smell of apple, rose, orange, ginger, strawberry, nutmeg or coconut, almond, camphor, lemon, pine, mint ).
All Pelargonium very decorative, nice rooms in landscaping, patio, rock garden, loggias, window sills. They form dense clumps of beautiful cascades or cascade down from hanging baskets or pots in the form of streams with an abundance of green umbrellas bright flowers.
Pelargonium - photophilous plant, it needs plenty of fresh air and a well-drained soil. Substrate is made from Pelargonium light turf and ground sheet, humus and sand in equal parts. Summer pelargonium must be fed weekly full mineral and organic fertilizers. Early spring needed a transplant and a short cropping Pelargonium. When transferring Pelargonium for the summer in the garden must be pre-hardening.
From spring to autumn cuttings of Pelargonium root easily in soil. For better tillering tops Pelargonium periodically pinch. Pelargonium watering should be sufficient without water stagnation and without drying earthen coma. Before the first frosts Pelargonium are dug out of the garden and are exempt from many pots standing on the balcony; izrosshiesya stems can be cut to half, trimmed and yellow leaves and faded blossoms.
With roots shaken almost all soil and plants are placed close to each other in a common long box for the winter - it saves space on the windowsill, allowing you to save all uterine bushes and buy new plants collected pelargonium.
Winter pelargonium prefers cool (10-15 degrees), watering is very rare. Old varieties of pelargonium in bloom from April to June, but grown from the seeds of modern hybrids (sown in January under glass) with plenty of light and heat bloom profusely large blooms almost all year round. Wilting flowers are removed to extend the period of flowering pelargonium.
With a lack of light and fresh air, the excess humidity and excessive watering in Pelargoniums can rot the root collar and roots, gray mold, the emergence of pests - aphids and whiteflies.