Synonyms and local names.
Guava; guava - in English; Guayave - in German; psidium, guaiaio - in Italian; gojavier - in French; banjiro - in Japanese; sahuintu - Peru; guayaba - in Argentina.
Origin and Distribution.
Homeland guava - South and Central America, presumably Peru. In any case, the Spaniards found it in Peru and Colombia, and spread almost all over the tropics. Guava is found in tropical and some subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, South and North America.
The botanical characteristics.
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) belongs to the family of myrtle (Myrtaceae Juss.). This family includes such well-known plants such as myrtle, feijoa, eucalyptus. Guava - a small evergreen tree up to 3-4 m, tolerates drought. Blooms once or twice a year. It gives one the major crop - up to 100 kg per tree and 2-4 additional, much smaller harvest. The fruits are round and pear-shaped, with bright yellow, reddish or green thin skin. Mass fruit cultivar from 70 to 160 g, the length of the fetus - 4 to 6.5 cm, diameter - 4,8-7,2 cm.
Energy content of 100 grams of fruit - 64-69 kkal.V pulp contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fiber, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, vitamin C kaliy.Soderzhanie guava fruit varies widely from 72 to 1000 mg / 100 g . Varieties with light fruits contain more vitamin C. In addition, contains vitamins B1, B2, B5. In fruits with red skin contains beta-carotene in fruits with unpainted skin it is not. Of vitamin E in the fruits of guava is 15 times more than in citrus.
Therapeutic and prophylactic svoystvaObuslovleny primarily to the fact that guava is a very rich source of vitamin C and beta-carotene. The use of traditional medicine is as follows: In Brazil, the fruits are used in diarrhea and urinary tract infections. In Panama, the ripe fruit is eaten with the inflammation of the throat and lungs.
In Central America, heated guava juice, mixed with lime juice and a few drops of vanilla essence, given at bedtime with asthma. In the Philippines, guava juice is used as a tonic for heart zabolevaniyah.Pobochnoe effects, contraindications: Fruits contain a lot of small hard seeds, which can cause irritation of the throat.
Acquire better intact mature fruits yellow, soft to the touch. Guava fruits at room temperature can be kept at the best a few days, at a temperature 7-10S - 2-3 weeks. When the temperature drops occur low-temperature damage. Guava not store together with other products, as it is easily saturated by foreign smells.
At the same time, guava fruits can be stored in frozen form: they practically do not change the quality and vkusa.IspolzovaniePered ingestion with purified fruit peels and seeds were removed. The ground pulp served with whipped cream. Guava fruits are eaten fresh, they are used in salads and puddings. Marinated pieces of fruit served with meat dishes. In the tropics, especially popular guava jelly. Guava prepare syrups, puree product called "fruit oil".
Juice is used for making sorbet and ice cream. Ascorbic acid in fruit guava is not destroyed by drying and canning, so the juice is prepared from powder, which is a rich source of vitamin C. The main export item is the so-called cheese and guava, which is made from the dried fruit pulp. Guava cheese - one of the best oriental sweets. Guava fruits practically do not change the quality and taste when frozen.
Growing up in the home.
For breeding in the rooms more suitable psidium coastal (P. littorale). In the rooms it blooms profusely small white fragrant flowers. The flowers consist of 8-10 petals; many of the same white stamens and pistil with a small round flat stigma. Do psidiuma coastal flowers are large, and the leaves are denser and leathery.
As with feijoa fruit in psidiumov formed on new growth, so in the formation of crown plants do not need. Should prune only the long drooping branches, and remove excessive root shoots.
Fruits psidiuma Kettli about 2 cm in diameter, round, reddish; mature like to taste for strawberries, but a high proportion of immature "pine needles". Do psidiuma coastal fruits of higher quality: spherical, yellowish, up to 4 cm in diameter; when mature, they become very fragrant, and the taste is not inferior to the famous feijoa. It is this kind should pay special attention to fans of exotic fruit trees. When sowing seeds psidium coastal blooms in the third year.
Seeds extracted from fruits germinate well. Sow them immediately after collection. An important advantage is its coastal psidiuma samoopylyaemost. Carefully transferring pollen from flower to flower brush, you can increase the yield of useful ovaries. Psidium cuttings propagated with difficulty - for their rooting needs fever and high relative humidity.
Psidiumy quite resistant to diseases and pests. The bane of many indoor plants with thick, leathery leaves - Jose scale - psidiumy not striking. Hardly seen in them, and fungal diseases, but sometimes there are aphid and mealybug.
Growing psidiumov - very rewarding occupation. Throwing them, it's hard not to succeed - so generously respond these plants even at low take care of themselves! And I think, in the near future they will occupy an important place in the range of indoor fruit crops. In the meantime, "domestication" promising exotics just beginning.