Coffee from seeds and cuttings.
The coffee tree is very attractive and fits into any interior: it is a beautiful shrub or small tree having tiered spreading crown of horizontal branches with a thin gray-beige crust, covered with numerous shiny dark green leaves; with white fragrant flowers and ornate fruit the size of a cherry.
With proper care the coffee tree grows in the house for many years, reaching a half-height of two meters, and regularly gives good maturing fruit - up to 500 grams of grain per year; caffeine in them 3-4 times higher than purchased.
Prepared from coffee beans popular tonic drink, due to the presence of caffeine (from 0.7 to 2.7%), activates the nervous system, improves blood circulation and metabolism, increases respiration; used as a stimulant in mental fatigue, headache, hypotension, poisoning (cores coffee is contraindicated). Tincture of green coffee is useful in whooping cough and nervous disorders and as well as arthritis and gout.
Coffee tree, or coffee (Coffea) - genus of evergreen tall trees and shrubs of the family Rubiaceae, with about 50 species, native to tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia. Of these, only three species - Arabian coffee tree (C. arabica), Liberian (C. liberica) and powerful (C. robusta) - allow exports of coffee beans. Height cultural coffee trees significantly less than the wild and is 1.8-2.7 m. Coffee trees begin to bear fruit at the age of 3-5 years; in vivo trees flower and fruit at the same time throughout the year.
In indoor ornamental horticulture mainly grows Arabian rarely Liberian coffee; foreign breeders bred dwarf forms of coffee. Well-developed, well-maintained room coffee trees usually bloom massively summer. In the axils of the pointed-oval, wavy at the edges of opposite leaves coffee appear tufts of white fragrant flowers (up to 20 units), and apparently smell like jasmine flowers.
Most buds are born and from dormant buds on the trunk of the coffee trees. Coffee flower one-day gives life to the ovary of the fetus, on aging which requires 6-8 months. Rounded, slightly elongated drupes with large seeds and a thin layer of adhesive edible flesh, sweet taste, formed by self-pollination. In the process of fruit ripening coffee change color from green to dark red (as there are forms with yellow and blue-black fruit), and usually contain two (rarely 1 or 3) greenish-gray seed - coffee beans, pressed flat sides to each other.
Coffee beans covered with fine silvery skin and pergamentovidnoy shell that is removed during cleaning with the pulp. Refined grains first dried in a warm oven at a temperature of about 70 degrees; then 2 weeks finally dried, spread out on paper. Before use, the dried coffee beans are roasted in a pan (over medium heat), stirring constantly, until the acquisition of brown on the outside and inside, ground and brewed flavored drink.
Coffee tree - photophilous and heat-loving plant, preferring fresh humid air. In summer it is recommended to make a coffee tree in sheltered from the wind and solntsepÑ‘ka garden space. It is noticed that the coffee bloom due to the sudden drop in temperature after the storm; perhaps this contributes formed after heavy lightning ozone.
Spraying the trees with warm water and a regular "shower" to promote good growth and coffee are the prevention of pests (scale insects, mealybugs). Coffee summer watered abundantly, winter - in moderation, as the soil dries (at excessive watering in cool conditions in coffee rotting roots, shoot tips turn yellow and shrivel).
Late autumn and winter practiced supplementary lighting coffee. Recommended temperature of autumn and winter maintenance of coffee 18-22 degrees; important humid indoor air (dry air leaves turn brown coffee). At the coffee tree is no pronounced period of rest, so when there is sufficient light, proper good care and feeding every 10 days it will be all year round to grow, blossom and bear fruit at home - just like in nature.
Coffee transplanted if necessary (when the roots opletut earth com) in the substrate of equal parts of turf, leaf soil, humus, peat and sand; added to the substrate horn shavings promote better flowering and fruiting coffee. Peat Transfer the acidic; subsequently maintain a slightly acid reaction of the substrate.
If the reaction of the soil is neutral or alkaline, the coffee will not be able to absorb nutrients from the substrate - will develop as a result of necrosis (blackening of leaf tips); trees have to be oppressed species, developmental delay, lack of flowering. The first three years, young plants are transplanted each year (in a pot with a diameter of more than the 2-3 cm); adult plants - 2-3 years (in the old pot is wider by 5-6 cm).
During the active vetegatsii from March to August coffee useful dressing 2 times a month with liquid fertilizer made from horn sawdust, chicken manure, or mullein; 1 time per month are made fertilizer with trace elements. The coffee tree is most often propagated by seeds and cuttings, at least - by grafting (coffee can impart to other plants of the family Rubiaceae - cinchona, gardenia).
Coffee seeds during storage quickly lose their germination; sold in the store green coffee beans also prevent germination. For breeding better to take fully ripe fruit with two seeds of which can be guaranteed to grow young plants when to sow them immediately after maturation. Freshly picked and peeled seeds of coffee pulp was thoroughly washed in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection and thorough cleaning of the mucous membrane; surfaced seeds discarded.
Two weeks before sowing prepare loose water and air permeable substrate: steamed grassy land, it is mixed with sand and sifted peat in a ratio of (1: 2: 2). Purified coffee seeds are laid out in a pot filled with substrate, flat side down at a distance of 3 cm from each other. Press the seeds into the soil to a depth of 1 cm, watered substrate pink solution of potassium permanganate and cover crops glass.
Pot of sown seeds put in a warm place and moderately watered; at a temperature of about 20 degrees shoots appear after 1-1.5 months. Daily crops airs, glass wipe and turn; when the sprouts airing gradually increased. After the formation of 2-3 pairs of true leaves of seedlings of coffee seated in small individual pots (7 cm in diameter) and pritenyayut to rooting; then put on a bright place with a constant influx of fresh air.
Lignification growing seedling coffee passes unusual: the first on the green crust appear unsightly brown spots, increasing in size and merge with each other; soon brighten the spot, and the bark becomes typical of the coffee tree coloring.
Emerging seedlings of coffee trees do not require the formation of crown: first, they grow one stem, and in the second year of the awakened lateral axillary buds grow stem boughs. Too long side shoots pruned coffee for the crown of splendor and abundant flowering. Fruiting coffee trees grown from seeds, starts in 3-4 years.
Plants produced from cuttings can bloom right after rooting; they retain all the properties of the parent plant, the fruits are larger and more numerous. However, the coffee trees from cuttings grow more slowly than from seeds; for them it is necessary to the formation of the crown (usually rounded). For cuttings used shoots last year's growth of the middle part of the crown of a fruiting of the coffee tree, terminal branches.
Stalks cut diagonally with two pairs of leaves; under the lower left section of the branch unit length of about 2.5 cm, which is scratched below the needle to stimulate rooting. Base of the cuttings placed in a solution of IAA (quarter of a tablet to 0.5 liters of water) for about 4 hours; then dusted the lower section of the cutting charcoal powder.
Cuttings are planted upright in the mixture sifted peat and perlite, shed a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate; lower leaf petioles cutting deepened in substrate halfway without allowing contact of the cuttings adjacent to each other. After planting, the soil cuttings again watered solution of potassium permanganate and erect in a pot "mini teplichku."
Coffee pot with cuttings put on a bright, protected from direct sun place, maintain a high substrate temperature (25-27 degrees is optimal). Teplichku regularly aired by sprinkling slips; after about 40 days they have awakened the upper kidney. Transplant the cuttings into individual pots with a diameter of 9-12 cm is held after the formation of their new pair of leaves. Rooted cuttings for preparing a mixture of humus, peat and sand (4: 2: 1) with the addition of wood ash.
At the drainage hole of the pot shard placed convex side up, on the bottom of the pot is poured a layer of coarse sand 1-1.5 cm. Handle planted in a pot, cooked using the substrate at the same level (you can not bury - zagniÑ‘t root collar), watered, put on light without direct sun location. If rooted cuttings will flower buds, they do not need to remove the fruit will be full and not impede the development of plants.