Synonyms and local names.
Akka, pineapple grass; feijoa, pineapple guava - in English; feijoa - in French.
Homeland feijoa - subtropical areas of South America: Brazil South, North Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay. Wild species as the plant is common in the forests of South America as the undergrowth. Feijoa - typical subtropical plant, and all attempts to cultivate it in the tropics have failed.
This unique fruit and ornamental plant was first discovered in the middle of the last century botanist Sella, from whose name and specific name of the plant occurs. A generic name is derived from the name of a feijoa director of the Brazilian Museum of Natural History - Joanie de Silva Fahey (Joani de Silva Fejio).
In 1890 feijoa appeared in France, where in 1900 was brought to Yalta and Sukhumi, in 1901 - in California, where it received the relative distribution. In 1913, this plant is stuck in Italy and then spread to other Mediterranean countries. The plant is adapted to the climate of the subtropics, but it has moved far to the north. For example, in the Crimea feijoa tolerate frosts to -11S without significant damage.
Currently, Culture feijoa is also common in Georgia, Azerbaijan, Crimea, Krasnodar Territory. However, most of these areas feijoa is grown mainly in home gardens. Feijoa good at in the culture room.
The botanical characteristics.
Small South American genus of feijoa (Feijoa) belongs to the family of myrtle (Myrtaceae). It includes only three species, of which only one is common culture - feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana). Feijoa - evergreen shrub with grayish-yellow branches, 2-3 m high. Leaves opposite, rigid, pubescent, green, silver-gray below, with a characteristic odor. Flowers bisexual, large, crimson-red with white-pink fleshy petals.
The fruit feijoa - green with a reddish tinge berry. The fruits are oval or oblong, with a diameter of 4-6 and 5-10 cm long. Single fruit weight of 25-50 Even when ripe they are lowly greenish color. Externally feijoa fruit like plum with greenish beam short tails at the end. In the pulp of the fruit are four seeded nests with numerous seeds, which are not felt when eating. The pulp of ripe fruit is firm, juicy, sour-sweet with a pleasant aroma. Feijoa is one of the most hardy subtropical plants: tolerates frost to -12, -14S.
In feijoa fruit pulp contains sucrose. The acidity of the fruit is quite high. In mature fruit contains vitamin C, the content of which increases as fruit ripening. They are quite a lot of pectin, cellulose. Little protein substances. The amino acid composition of the fruit is not rich, he is represented mainly by 5 amino acids (asparagine, arginine, glutamine, alanine, tyrosine).
A unique feature of feijoa fruit is the ability to accumulate significant amounts of digestible by the human body of water-soluble iodine compounds. In this regard, the feijoa is superior to other fruits and berries. However, this is not specific to all areas of culture feijoa. For example, in Batumi in feijoa fruit found only traces of iodine.
Fruits are also a lot of phenolic compounds. Among these catechins and leucoanthocyanins soluble tannin et al., Contained mainly in the skin and give the fruits of astringent taste. However, the skin is easily separated from the pulp and the food is almost never used. Kind of strawberry-pineapple fruit flavor is due to an essential oil consisting of 93 specific substances.
Therapeutic and preventive properties.
In science and medicine the fruit is used for thyroid disease and atherosclerosis. Fruits are also recommended to use in hypo-and avitaminosis C, inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, gastritis, pyelonephritis. Fresh, boiled or mashed with sugar fruit feijoa is very useful for people suffering from atherosclerosis. The essential oil is used in dermatology feijoa as anti-inflammatory agent.
Feijoa fruits harvested unripe, then they ripen in storage. Fruits, ready to eat - soft to the touch. Such fruit is better to use immediately.
Thanks to a beautiful large dolgotsvetuschim flower and leaf color peculiar silver feijoa bush look extremely decorative, so they were first used for decorative purposes for the decoration of parks and gardens. As an ornamental plant feijoa is still widely prevalent in sub-tropical regions of the Black Sea coast, in Australia, India, Japan, Morocco, Algeria, California. Feijoa is famous for its special taste qualities of fruits and their medical and dietary properties.
Immature fruits contain a large amount of solid cells, their low palatability. Mature fruits are very tasty flesh whitish gelatinous consistency with numerous small seeds and aroma of strawberries, banana and pineapple. They are used mainly in fresh form. They are usually eaten with sugar.
Due to its specific taste and aroma are very popular canned foods and drinks from fruit feijoa. They are trained as jams, compotes, jams, juices, cordials, soft drinks. In the confectionery industry fruits are used for filling candy.
Feijoa fruits before serving should be cleaned. Usually eat them separately. And use them as an additive to various fruit and vegetable salads. Pureed fruit feijoa with sour cream - perfect dessert. Canned fruit feijoa served with meats.
Growing up in the home.
With the grown plants "good" grade should take cuttings and try to root them - at the roots of attentive care they still formed. Shanks used semilignified shoots 10-12 cm long with 2-3 leaves. Cut them (after the fall growth) in October-December and be sure to soak in a solution of IAA or kornevin within 16-18 hours.
The temperature is maintained within 26-28S, the humidity must be very high (90-100%). Since rooting cuttings falls in autumn and winter, then it is necessary to dosvechivat their fluorescent lamps, remote from the upper leaves of 30-40 cm.
When seed reproduction in feijoa may be any surprises, so when planting seeds hope to receive fruit in the room. Seeds are sown into cups and placed in mikroteplichki. Seeds are small, so they are buried deep, barely covered with earth. Crops watered from watering can with a fine strainer, moisten the filter paper, the position on the surface of the soil. The best time for planting - February, it is desirable to use freshly harvested seeds. After separation from the pulp of the fruit are enough to dry for 5-6 days, and they are ready for planting. At a temperature 23-25S first shoots appear in 3-4 weeks.
When propagating plants from cuttings fruit at 3-4, when sowing seeds - 5-6 year. Feijoa has the form of a spreading shrub - lateral branches grow it in many different directions. However, cut shoots to form "correct" the crown is not recommended. As the flowers and fruits are formed on the branches of the current year and any shortening of the past will inevitably impact on the abundance of flowering and fruiting. It should only pinch young plants when they reach a height of 20 cm - this will give the bush a stocky and compact form.
Feijoa growing quite rapidly, and the first three years of his transplanted each year. Transfer should be cautious: the branches of bushes are very fragile and break easily. Caution should be observed when propagated plants and cuttings, when the lower branches bend down to the ground. Feijoa abundantly forms the root growth, which is constantly removed. Transfer it can be separated from the mother plant, which will give the possibility to use another method of reproduction.
Feijoa photophilous enough, although it may carry and some shading. In nature it grows on very poor, sandy and stony soils, but on soils rich and fertile growing much better. From time to time, arrange the plants "Sea Breeze" - carefully sprayed their leaves warm water (in the hot summer days and winter when the air is very dry). The optimum temperature in winter 12-14S.
Like any plant, to adapt to the nature of life in poor soils, feijoa is very responsive to fertilizer inputs. "Broad-leaved olive" little affected by the defeat of diseases and pests. With prolonged wetting the soil fungal diseases arise. Of pests especially annoying Jose scale and spider mites.
When ripe, the fruits turn yellow and red, sometimes orange, and sometimes purple, even black. The fruits are like small cucumbers, which remains at the top of a cup of flower - a hair's breadth, as the pomegranate, which, however, is not surprising: pomegranate is very close to the myrtle family, which belongs to the feijoa.
If still hard and unripe fruit fall, should be collected and put them in a dark and warm place - like tomatoes, they are perfectly ripened in maturation. Feijoa fruits, depending on the variety, weighing between 20 and 130 g on the garden plantations from one bush to collect 30 kg of fruit, and the rooms, while respecting all agrotechnical rules, their harvest may reach 2-3 kg.