Feijoa from seeds and cuttings.
Feijoa - healing gift subtropics - appears on sale in early November. Smaller, outwardly inconspicuous, oblong dark green berries with a slightly uneven surface and a bluish waxy bloom are sour-sweet pulp that resembles the taste and smell of pineapple and strawberries. Feijoa fruits are rich in sugars, organic acids, vitamins and iodine compounds.
They are used in fresh and processed form (jam, compotes, wine, peretÑ‘rtye with sugar and others.) used for the prevention and treatment of thyroid disease, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Rhode feijoa (Feijoa), or Akka, belongs to the family Myrtaceae and combines 3 species native to South America. As an ornamental and fruit plants feijoa is widespread in many subtropical countries.
Feijoa - small evergreen spreading tree with rough light brown bark and a spreading canopy or shrub up to 3 meters. Hard oval leaves feijoa - dark green on top and glossy, silver-gray bottom and pubescent - have fitontsidnymi properties (are aromatic glands and emit a smell when crushed myrtles). Flowering Feijoa in May and June on the shoots of the current year; bisexual flowers on long stalks are quite large (3-4 cm in diameter), solitary or in small inflorescences.
Chetyrehlepestkovye feijoa flowers are very effective: bent, juicy, sweet taste petals - white on the outside and dark pink inside; numerous long red stamens crowned at the ends of golden "crown" anther. Mature plants are resistant to drought and quite hardy (transferred temperatures as low as minus 12 degrees).
In the culture was spread form 1 - Feijoa Sellou (F. sellowiana), which grows well, blossoms and bears fruit in the rooms. To ensure sustainable and fruiting is better to buy self-pollinating variety feijoa. If the plants bloom, but do not bear fruit, it is necessary to carry out artificial cross-pollination brush. For a better fertilization recommended evening flowers sprayed with water. Fruit ripened in the room, do not differ from those grown in vivo.
Feijoa - light-requiring and wet crop, grows well in fertile soil and does not tolerate excess of lime. Summer feijoa need plenty of water and spray; young plants are demanding to moisture. In the summer you can set the feijoa in the garden or on the balcony, in a place sheltered from the wind. Stable growth and abundant flowering feijoa provide regular fertilizing in spring and summer 2 times a month, with a combination of mineral and organic fertilizers.
To feed feijoa experts advise to use horse manure (1:10), superphosphate and ash extraction. Superphosphate is poorly soluble in water, so the first one teaspoon of fertilizer should be boiled in 1 liter of water; ostuzhennym solution diluted in half with water. To produce potash fertilizer 1 tablespoon of ash hardwood draw for 1 week in 1 liter of water. Before fertilizing the plants watered.
The optimum growth temperature in the room feijoa is 18-20 degrees; only in winter desirable cool 12-14 degrees. Requires regular soil moisture, as peresushka earthen coma leads to loss of leaves, drying of branches and root system. At low relative humidities feijoa sprayed with lukewarm water. In autumn and winter low-light feijoa resets pretty much leaves; at this time of useful supplementary lighting.
Feijoa propagated by seed, cuttings, layering, root suckers and grafting. During the multiplication of seeds of plants hardly retain varietal characteristics.
For seeds take freshly ripe fruit, cut lengthwise and squeeze out the pulp with a small jelly few seeds, which is left to ferment for 3 days. The seeds are then separated from the pulp, washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dried (they remain viable for two years). Sowing seeds feijoa produced in January-March in the low box filled with a mixture of humus, peat and sand (2: 2: 1).
The soil before sowing the seeds need to be tamped and watered. Seeds were sown in furrows depth of 0.5 cm at a distance of about 5 cm apart, covered with soil. Crops moisturize from the sprayer and covered with glass. Box put on a light windowsill with a temperature of 16-20 degrees. Glass should be cleaned daily and turn; shoots appear in about a month. When the 2-3 pairs of leaves seedlings are transplanted into individual pots, removing part of the taproot. Substrate for preparing young seedlings heavier and fertile: sod, ground sheet, humus, sand (6: 4: 1: 1).
Cuttings, unlike seed reproduction retains all the features of the mother plant. Cuttings with three nodes (8-10 cm long) were cut from the upper or middle part of semilignified shoots from September until December. To avoid unnecessary loss of moisture, leave only the top few leaves. Sapling planted obliquely buried in the substrate bottom node. Substrate for rooting cuttings are from a mixture of leaf soil and sand in equal parts, soaked it in a solution of IAA (quarter of a tablet to 0.5 liters of water).
After planting the cuttings watered substrate warm weak solution of potassium permanganate, cover slips a glass jar (or construct in a pot "mini teplichku") to create a favorable microclimate, put in a light (but not direct sunlight) place. Periodically teplichku aerate and spray cuttings take root with difficulty: using growth promoters, with a light bottom-rooted soil heating occurs in 2 months. Rooted plants are transplanted in the spring substrate for young seedlings.
Feijoa seedlings begin to bloom and bear fruit after 5 years, and rooted cuttings - 4 years. To speed up fruiting, should be formed feijoa as a compact low trunk and immediately cut the emerging root shoots. Upon reaching the plant height of about 30 cm, the top part is cut by one-third to stimulate the development of skeletal branches; side shoots and pruned to limit their length. Later pruning is not necessary, remove only the weak and withered branches.
In the first 2-3 years young feijoa need to replant every year in fresh nutrient substrate, and then - to handle in the pot a little more than before as needed. Adults fruiting krupnomery transplanted in pots not more than 1 time in 5 years; annually can be replaced topsoil on fresh ground (recommended substrate: turf, humus earth and sand in equal parts).
At high temperatures and dry air feijoa appear Pests: Spider mites and Jose scale.