In temperate climates, it is impossible to grow heat-loving plants in the open ground. However, little effort, you can grow in a container not only beautiful tropical flowers, but many exotic fruits.
Of course, the fruit-bearing tree in the pot does not provide a large harvest, but even a few fruit ripened on it can give a lot of joy. This tree is very decorative and can decorate the apartment. In addition, the cultivation of fruit trees in containers - a very exciting experience.
Summer containers with trees can be taken to fresh air - to place in the garden or on the balcony. In areas where subtropical plants grow well in the open field, it is possible for a long time to grow tropical fruit trees in containers outdoors, holding up the pots in the greenhouse for only a few winter months.
Container plants are highly mobile, and it allows you to turn any warm place with plenty of light in the corner of a tropical garden. Mobile container garden gives huge scope for design ideas: combining conventional plants for our climate and tropical fruit, you can achieve stunning beauty of the results.
In containers you can grow many kinds of fruit trees. But not all types of rasteniy- "tropikantsev" suitable for room culture - some require high humidity and a constant temperature throughout the year. Preference should be given to dwarf forms or species of plants, fruit-bearing with a relatively small amount of wood.
The choice of container.
Prerequisite of successful cultivation of fruit trees is the presence of several pot drainage holes - tropical plants do not like stagnant water, and many people do not tolerate the bay. Now on sale you can find a variety of containers - plastic, clay, wood, etc.
Plastic containers are the most convenient and practical - they are light (try to pick up a 40-liter clay pot, and you will understand what I mean); they are comfortable and post transplant, move the plant.
Most plastic containers has a fairly simple design, and if your tree is the decoration of the interior, you can do the following: Select a beautiful container of any material, but for him to pick up the right size is just a plastic container that fits easily into a decorative container. So you hide the real capacity of the land and keep all the benefits of a plastic container, which I have mentioned above.
But there is one thing that must be considered: a plastic pot does not have to stand directly on the bottom of the decorative container, or when watering in the bottom of the pot with the plant will accumulate water. Pot with a little tree set in a decorative container on the support so that the water when watering plants could flow freely from the drainage holes.
The size and shape of the container is selected depending on the size of the plant and its characteristics: volume and shape of the roots and crowns, the rate of growth etc. (Eg, citrus do not like "wet" roots - is better for them to take a deep pot and drainage layer is more).
To select the volume of the container is necessary to determine what plant you put into it. For fruiting tree height of 1.5-2 m (maximum size when grown under ambient conditions) is required container with a diameter of 30 to 45 cm. In most cases, containers are used much more modest size.
When selecting the size of the container for transplantation refer to the size of the plant and its root system. Do not put a small plant in a large container at once, it is very difficult to control the humidity of the soil - you can easily fill in the plant, or, conversely, help retain moisture. Also, it is possible that in the center of the pot the roots dry, and the edges waterlogged soil. Use the serial handler, gradually increasing the size of the container is proportional to the root development (including growth rate and size of the above-ground parts).
When selecting plants for planting a mixture of container culture must be considered next: the soil must have good water and air permeability and should not slÑ‘zhivatsya. For tree planting in containers using potting soil with plenty of loosening of components, which is prepared on the basis of small pieces of pine bark, perlite and coir (peat). You can use the disintegrating components of artificial origin.
The ratio of the components varies depending on the plant size of the container and the place of installation. The approximate composition: 50-60% cortex 30-40% coconut fibers or peat, perlite 10% (this ratio is arbitrary and may vary within wide limits). Particles of soil mix should have a maximum size of 5-7 mm. In small containers can be used for normal tropical plants soil mix.
The distinctive feature of a good soil mix is â€‹â€‹the following: it is easily wetted and does not change its volume when watering or under pressure. The permeability of the mixture can be checked in a simple manner - pour into a container a couple of glasses of water. After 1-2 minutes, the water should come out through the drainage holes. The more container - the more friable soil mix should be. For containers exposed to the open air and protected from the rain, you need to add more disintegrating components (such as pine bark).
In the ready-mix, you can add a long-acting fertilizer (about dosage read the instructions on the package). This will not take care of dressing the first few months after transplanting plants.
Before planting, the plants must be prepared container. If it does not have drainage holes - they need to be done. Thoroughly rinse the container, especially if it is already used in the growing of plants.
At the bottom of the pot, pour drainage (expanded clay, shards of clay pots, pebbles, small pieces of foam). Soil mixes for container culture lighter, so to make a pot of stability is best to use a heavy drain. This is especially true for containers that are exposed to the open air (wind can very easily turn the plant).
It is very important to plant the plant so that its root collar is at the same height relative to the ground level as before. If you put a tree deeper, its trunk can begin to rot, and at a higher landing baring the upper roots, the plant will not have enough water.
For the convenience of watering not to fill up the ground to the edge of the pot, leave it to the top 2-4 cm. On top of the substrate as mulch can sprinkle shredded pine bark, stones or other materials to make a decorative kind.
With long-term cultivation of plants in a container without a transplant can occur slowing its growth due to the strong development of the root system. So, it's time to transship the plant into a larger container.
In the case where you can not buy a volumetric container, replanting is carried out with the trimming of the root system. Some plants react negatively to pruning the roots and in general on any transactions with the roots - for them the only right thing to do is reloading.
Trim the root system is as follows.
Remove the root ball from the container, putting it on its side. Trim the root system by about one-quarter or one-third. Place the root ball back into the container, adding fresh planting soil mix and slightly compacted its top to prevent the formation of air pockets. Well water the plant and put in place, protected from wind and direct sun. Periodically spray. Wait until the tree was good prirastÑ‘t, then start gradually accustomed to the same conditions.
Watering plants in large containers has certain specifics - it is very easy to fill in or to dry the plant. Before the next watering topsoil should dry for 1-2 cm, this condition is very good there is a finger. If more humid, the watering is not necessary. Lack of irrigation for the plants is just as dangerous as excess: the tree may lose the fruit, buds and leaves, and may even die.
It is best to irrigate plants in the morning.
The frequency of watering depends on many factors: the size of the container, the composition of the soil mixture, temperature, size of the plant, away from direct sunlight, wind (if you set the container in the open air). Small containers dry out faster than larger ones.
It is necessary to carefully monitor the moisture content of the soil, if you set the container plants outdoors. The sun can be very heated container, and the soil in it will dry out quickly; strong winds can cause similar effects. Such cases shall be abundant watering.
Take measures to protect the container from direct sunlight (in the garden, you can simply prikopat container into the ground), so as not to overheat the roots of plants. In cold weather it is necessary to limit watering plants in a container.
Fruit trees in containers need more fertilizer than the same plants living in the wild. The volume of the container is limited, and actively growing tree sucks up from the soil all the nutrients. This is especially true for soil mixtures, in which there is no humus or compost - there was initially no nutrients.
Use complete balanced fertilizer with trace elements and not get carried away with nitrogen fertilizers, which cause excessive growth of green mass at the expense of fruiting. Refer to the instructions included with the fertilizer.
Foliar feeding micronutrients or iron preparations a few times a year a beneficial effect on the health of trees in containers. Fertilization during flowering and fruit ripening for some fruit trees (eg mango) can lead to a deterioration in taste and quality of the fruit. In this case, feeding wood used before flowering and after harvesting the fruit.
Overfeeding tree fertilizers leads to its increased growth, poor quality fruit and gradual salinization of the soil, that is bad for the health of the plant. On soil salinity indicates the appearance on its surface white bloom, and sometimes withering plants. To remove excess salts from the soil spend much water (preferably soft or rain water). Water thus must flow through the drainage holes washing out salts from the soil. This procedure is recommended on a regular basis, but only if you have the "right" soil mix - otherwise Bay plant is provided.
Formation of a crown and cropping.
Most fruit trees do not need special pruning. Usually, trees growing in a container used for cutting crown impart a predetermined size and shape. It is necessary to thin out the thick branches, cut the old and growing inside the crown branches, shorten rapidly growing shoots. This allows the crown to be uniformly developed and compact, which has a positive effect on the health of the tree, its appearance and yield.
When pruning, consider the characteristics of each plant - forms a crown, depending on the shape of the tree, the size of the container and your plans. The most commonly container plants formed into a tree bole. More information about the formation of the crown of the tree and pruning frkutovogo in the container, read the second part of the article.
Fruiting trees in the container.
Many fruit trees in containers fruit successfully. The number of fruit depends on the size of the tree, container, and conditions of detention. Naturally, for the beginning of fruiting tree must reach a certain age and size. Sometimes the plant begins to bloom in a state where the crown is underdeveloped (this is typical for grafted trees).
In this case, it is necessary to remove the flowers and let the sapling grow to normal size. Focus on the number of leaves - the more, the greater the amount of fruit can ripen on the tree. For example, citrus-known rule applies: 10-15 well-developed leaves per fruit.
At room conditions are no insects that pollinate flowering might fruit (in some cases need "special" insects), and sometimes artificial pollination significantly increases the amount and even the quality of the fruit.
In pollination by hand is no big deal, the scheme is very simple: it is necessary to collect pollen from the stamens brush and put it on the pistils. But for some species (eg, annonas) pollination process is quite complicated, requires knowledge and skills.
Typically, the number of flowers, and then the ovaries greatly exceed the capacity of the tree to bring all the fruit to full maturity. Then the nature of "hedging" and "extra" ovaries fall themselves. But a large amount of the ovaries reduces the tree, so I recommend initially leaving the optimal number of ovaries, removing the other hand. This will allow the remaining fruits grow larger and more flavorful.
In the first year of fruiting trees to leave him only two or three of the fetus. Jackfruit and some other fruit trees produce very large fruit, so the young trees should be left only one fruit, otherwise the plant can greatly diminish or even death.
Acclimatization in the fresh air.
If you plan to make your container plants in the summer in the open air, make sure to pre-acclimatization. Illumination of plants under ambient conditions is much lower, there is no wind. Therefore, when a sharp change in the conditions of the plants often shed their leaves, get sunburns and long sick.
Initially containers with plants placed outdoors in places protected from direct sunlight and strong wind, gradually increasing the residence time in the open air. The inverse operation is carried out in the autumn, habituating plants to low osvÑ‘schennosti: first rearrange the containers into the shade, and then periodically are entered into the house, every day increasing the residence time in the indoor environment.
Wintering - an important period in the growing container plants. Many subtropical trees (especially deciduous) in the winter must be kept at a lower temperature, which will ensure good flowering and fruiting next year.
Tropical plants in their natural habitat are actively growing all year round, so there are two options wintering: dosvechivat plants (in this case, they will continue to rise) or slightly lower the temperature and reduce watering - then slow down the growth of trees.