Pruning and shaping the crown.
If you were in the tropics or considered beautiful pictures of tropical fruit trees growing in their natural habitat, you probably visited the idea of â€‹â€‹the impossibility of growing these giants in his apartment. At the same time in my head flashed, one after another, these pictures: here tree has grown taller than me: grown to the ceiling, I cut through the ceiling, I go to the neighbors to harvest.
Plain living room - not a greenhouse or even a winter garden, so to fruit tree in a container here imposed the most stringent requirements, ranging from the size of the pot and the height of the tree and ending with crown shape and appearance. Here comes to help trim and crown formation.
With the growth in the wild tree branches easily and develops a beautiful, harmonious crown unaided. In the culture container using only trimming can be given almost any plant crown shape, attractive appearance to maintain and even increase the amount and quality of the fruit ripened to it.
A correctly-formed tree covered with numerous leaves, but not thickened; each branch of the well-lit; between the amount of leaf mass, size and growth in the number of fruit balance is maintained. For pruning trees need a sharp tool - scissors, a knife or secateurs. That when trimming not infect the plant tissue slices, wipe the playing surface with alcohol.
But before cutting as it should think about what you want to get in the end. Decide what you want to create a tree - stam or more like a spreading shrub. Calculate the approximate height and shape of the crown. Do not neglect this important step, it is very important - with the timely and proper pruning, you build up the crown with minimal impact on the tree.
The method of constructing the tree crown.
Stam tree - the most common form of fruit plants; it is decorative and convenient for them to care. At high shtambe container plant can be put on the floor or on a low stand. Crown with stam trees can form a sphere, pyramid, or a large tree - all depends on your imagination and desire.
The height of the trees in the container plan, depending on where it is installed: the closer to the window - the higher the tree can grow. At a distance from the window upper part of the crown will receive very little light, because there do not get the sun's rays.
Formation of the structure tree begins with the cultivation of the stem - the trunk. Until the plant has not reached the planned height of the trunk, do not let him branch out - remove the lower branches appear. When growing trees from cuttings he can sprout a few top of the kidneys - leave the strongest shoot, delete the rest. When developing shtamb grow to a given height, prischipnite its top.
Often shtamb sapling starts to bend in an arc shape, but we need a nice and straight barrel - Barrel tie up to the support received. After nipping at the trees are beginning to wake up to the side of the kidney. In plants with opposite leaves (leaves sitting on a branch in pairs against each other) wake up the top two buds that grow two equally developed branches.
Plants with another arrangement of leaves have a bad habit continued to grow stem - they wake up only the top bud. Pinch appearing escape as long as the plants do not wake generated and other kidney. Leave 3-4 sprigs, delete the rest.
When shoots reached 5 cm, bend and distribute them on the perimeter, they tied up the bottom to support a soft rope or wire. Depending on the shape of the crown, the angle between the trunk and branches should be 45-50 degrees (for a rounded crown) or a slightly smaller angle (for extended upwards crown).
Often the top flight, growing straight up, starts to develop very quickly; then the lower shoots may eventually stop the growth, and even dry out. To avoid this, are folded top flight as I described above, which will lead to an increase in the remaining shoots. The warm, sunny weather and regular feeding actively developing plants also contribute to their branching.
Thus we form a tree branch in the first order. Surely you've seen in the literature references to the mysterious branches of the n-th order. Zero order is considered the trunk, the first - growing from the trunk branch, etc. To tree came into full fruition, it is necessary to form the crown with branches of the 4th order. When a branch of the first order to reach lengths of 15-20 cm, pinch out the top of it.
Formation of branches following orders made similarly - leave 3-4 branches, bent them to 45-50 degrees, evenly distributed around the perimeter of the crown. Unevenly growing branch tie trunk or other branches. Trim or pinch escape, with the top bud facing out of the crown. Sections were above the bud, leaving it up to a small area of â€‹â€‹the branch.
Control technique of fruiting wood.
Graft and vegetatively propagated specimens of certain species of fruit trees (grafted mango, lychee propagated air layering, etc..) Can begin to blossom at a young age - then ruthlessly break off the flowers appear, otherwise the tree can greatly diminish. Do not let the sapling fruit as long as it will not be the main skeleton is formed.
Fruiting often leads to delay or eliminate the growth of young shoots. Even a fetus can greatly slow the growth of the branch on which he grew up, and lead to uneven development of the crown.
Usually young fruit trees acquire already partially formed, with the existing branches of the 2nd or 3rd order. In this case, according to one's pre-existing structure of the crown. When buying, choose the tree with the structure of the main branches, the most appropriate to your plans. And now comes the happy moment when the tree crown has already been formed, and on it there are the first flowers.
In his first fruiting plant can tie the fruit thereof; many of the ovaries themselves fall off soon after flowering. But you need to manually remove the excess, leaving the desired number of ovaries, uniformly distributed over the entire crown. Number of full fruit depends on the number of leaves - the more leaves, the more fruit can ripen on the tree. For example, citrus fruit is recommended to keep one on the 10-15 well-developed leaves.
The optimum amount of fruit does not overload the tree; they are developing successfully, have a beautiful appearance and taste. On the large-fruit trees (jackfruit and some others), leave only one fruit, otherwise the tree quickly depleted and may die. Further formation of adult fruiting trees simple; pruning of its branches is corrective.
It is important to consider the following: in some species of fruit trees (mango, litchi, citrus, etc..) Flower buds are formed at the ends of twigs, and excessive pruning can reduce the number of fetuses. Fruit trees such as jackfruit, dzhabotikaba, cocoa and other fruits form on the trunk and main branches (the so-called kaulifloriya) - this allows them to trim without any restrictions.
Methodology corrective pruning.
- Cut the sprouts growing inside the crown, as well as loose, old or "bald" branch. Observe the balance between the number of leaves and evenly developed, nezaguschÑ‘nnoy and well permeable to light crown of the tree.
- Remove the fast-growing "fatliquoring" shoots trees: they do not branch out, practically do not give fruit and often weaken the branch on which grown.
- Vertically growing shoots of trees need to be pushed at an angle of 45-50 degrees, tying them to the trunk or branches.
- Tinker with the crown of a tree, if it gets too "disheveled", thick, or if the tree starts to lose its appearance.
- Leave the optimal amount of fruit can ripen on the fruit-bearing tree.
Remove any trees weakened and without leaves fruit branches: they give small substandard fruit and eventually die.
Pruning fruit tree - a simple process, accessible to everyone. The presence of a large proportion of creativity makes pruning a real art. Growing fruit tree in a container, you can implement any of your design ideas, as well as to please the family unusual, exotic fruits.