Citrus (Citrus) - is a small evergreen trees and shrubs of the family Rutaceae from Southeast Asia. Some types of citrus can be grown indoors, not only as ornamental plants, but also as a fruit.
Scented with sweet-sour juicy pulp citrus fruits contain a lot of vitamins. For growing on a windowsill or in a conservatory suitable mini-shape with a maximum height of 2 meters: Calamondin (C.microcarpa, synonym C.mitis), kumquat (Fortunella japonica), lemon (C.limon), a hybrid of Citrus and Fortunella - tsitrofortunella (Citrofortunella mitis), citron (C.medica), grapefruit (C.paradisi), Mandarin (C.reticulata), sweet orange or citrus Chinese (C.sinensis), et al.
Citrus tree house is a real gem: decorative fruit and fragrant flowers appear, often at the same time, all year round in the crown of evergreen leathery leaves with a specific smell of essential oils.
Citrus fruit - it's a constant game of contrasting colors: the young shoots - with a purple tinge; wondrous smell of flowers, solitary or collected in inflorescence - white or pink; bright eye-pleasing fruit that can hold onto the citrus tree for weeks and months - yellow, orange-yellow or bright orange; beautiful shiny leaves - dark green.
Citrus - heat-loving and shade-moisture-loving plants. Conduct frequent spraying citrus boiled water at room temperature (after sunset or in the morning) and sometimes washing their crowns in the shower. The most shade-tolerant of citrus - lemon and citron, they can grow on any windows, but on the southern should be protected from burns.
The remaining citrus light-requiring, for their desirable southern window (in this case you need to cover the pot from the heat). In summer you can contain adult citrus tree outdoors in the most warm and sunny (only after the gradual hardening, on the drainage hole of the pot put the stocking from the penetration of earthworms and insects under the pot to improve drainage enclose the bricks and keep the pot from the heat) - high temperature and dry air rooms can cause abscission of flowers.
From spring to autumn citrus need abundant watering with soft water. Water for irrigation is better filter - citrus fruits can not tolerate chlorine, lime water causes chlorosis (yellowing) of the leaves. If there is no filter, boil water for irrigation or defend it before watering at least one day in an open pan. From February to August every week citrus lightly fertilize, alternate organic and mineral fertilizers.
Winter citrus contain a light place at a temperature of 12-15 degrees and supplementary lighting with fluorescent lamps in the evening, as the light period of the day short. Protect citrus from cold drafts from open windows. From November to February citrus are in a state of relative calm, almost do not grow, but because they do not lose their leaves and evaporation takes place - need moderate watering, fertilizing and sometimes (foliar 1 time per month by just spraying citrus trees with a weak solution of potassium permanganate).
In winter, the citrus grown in ambient conditions, detrimental effect of dry hot air from the radiator central heating - citrus tree may lose leaves. In non-residential cool conservatory citrus feels much more comfortable in the winter than in the living room. In the absence of a winter garden, if the room is hot and dry, the pot of citrus need to put on the stand (to prevent water from entering the drainage hole) in a pan with water to evaporate moisture constantly moistened crown and the air around the citrus tree. Winter citrus well watered melted snow water, warmed to room temperature.
Substrate for citrus prepared from a mixture of turf, humus soil and sand (3: 1: 1), adult plants take in twice as much humus earth. For rooting cuttings taken in the same mixture proportions (1: 1: 1), the cuttings root better in the heated soil. Ready special substrate for citrus can be purchased in the store. Transplanting and handling citrus held in early March, only for those plants which clod in a pot full braided roots.
In this case, you can not trim the roots - carefully removed only dried or damaged roots. Pick up the pot, with a width approximately equal height. Root collar should be at or just below the pot, it is necessary to arrange in a pot for good drainage (coarse sand, small stones, pieces of charcoal). On drainage can put a little bit of dry manure, and then pour the soil.
Citrus is propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering, grafting. The seeds grow strong, beautiful healthy plants, saturating the air in the room with volatile production, but they do not bloom for a long time. Cuttings are cut with citrus in March-April and June-July. Cuttings should be 7-10 cm in length, to have five to seven leaf (two of which are removed by three lower). Cuttings planted in razvodochnuyu soil (or sand), covering them a glass jar; rooting at a temperature of about 22 degrees occurs in approximately one month.
Citrus crop and need very little care. When insufficient care citrus trees affects spider mites, scale insects and voylochniki. Sometimes citrus happen fungal diseases. In plants that during flowering can not stand on the air (so they do not fertilize insects) conduct self-pollination: pollen in the afternoon you need to put on a pestle brush for fruit set, the procedure must be repeated the next day.