Orange (Citrus sinensis) - an evergreen fruit tree of the family Rutaceae. There are many subspecies and varieties of oranges; list of grades 10-15 annually replenished with new ones. Outdoors orange is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Lifespan orange under favorable growth conditions close to human - 75 years or more.
Growing on the strong-orange rootstock is a huge tree (up to 12 m), on dwarf rootstocks - is several times lower. At room conditions tall orange tree can reach 2-2.5 meters; dwarf varieties are compact (0.6-0.8 m).
Fruiting orange annually. Its bright, juicy fruit - berries mnogognÑ‘zdnye so-called Hesperides. Depending on the variety, the fruit of oranges vary greatly in size, shape, color of the skin with the peel (light yellow, orange, red-orange in different shades), the taste of fruit pulp (sweet, sweet and sour, sweet and bitter).
Orange varieties are divided into three groups:
- The first group - the variety with the usual and customary form and type of fruit that is round, with a beautiful smooth skin;
- The second group includes varieties which fruit of the "navel" (nevly): they grow on top of the second small round apelsinchik-navel;
- The third group includes wrens - a small (in comparison with the umbilical nevlami) oranges. They are more acidic taste, have a red or redbanded pulp.
How beautiful indoor pot plant growers in cultured pleasure bitter orange, or bitter Seville orange (Citrus aurantium). This variety of orange, which the Arabs call Naranjo, also known as bigaradiya or bitter Seville orange, sour orange or. Bitter orange is grown in the room in the form of a slender miniature trees or small jewelery bush.
Pleases spectacular and fragrant orange blossom; its large, fragrant, white flowers have a pink tint. Against the green of its leaves with petioles shirokokrylymi very elegant look bright fruit decorating plant ten months of the year. Fruits bigaradii fragrant, almost round, taste sweet and bitter (in natural fresh inedible, but walking in processing). Peel fetuses thick, immature fruit - dark green and when ripe becomes orange-red.
Natural hybrids of bitter orange are tsitradiya (hybrid bigaradii and pontsirusa) mirtolistny orange, bergamot. Bitter orange is often used as a rootstock for a variety of citrus.
Very rarely occurs until mirtolistny orange. Externally, this plant with a compact bush is very similar to the myrtle. There are two varieties of orange mirtolistnogo differing size of leaves and fruit: at the first leaves to a centimeter in length, while the second - a little larger. Mirtolistnogo orange fruits orange, with a bitter pulp. I love this unusual orange in their appearance.
Orange, bergamot, or bergamot (Citrus bergama) - a small evergreen tree subfamily Pomerantseva having a medium-sized pear-shaped fruit. Peel of the fruit is golden-yellow, having a specific "bergamot" flavor. Flesh is orange-bergamot malosedobnaya: sour or tart, slightly bitter taste.
Scheme of care for oranges grown in the house, the same as for other citrus. Care should be orange sapling thorough and constant: watering, spraying, tillage, fertilization with mineral and organic fertilizers. Need nipping young shoots of orange, pruning old branches, removal of long, thin shoots wither in winter.
The main orange fruiting occurs on shoots of the current year and previous year's wood. Vaccinated fruiting plants usually occurs 4-5 years of life, but with good care and supplementary lighting in winter - much earlier. But we must bear in mind that when a sharp change of light orange may lose leaves. Orange tree also categorically not tolerate smoke.
Propagated by grafting an orange - the method of budding, grafting and kopulirovki handle the bark. As rootstock for grafting orange suit strong nelistopadnye varieties of lemon ("Jubilee", "Panderoza").
For cultivation at home, I recommend the following varieties of oranges:
- "Washington Navel" - the fruits of this variety have a high taste. The tree is medium in size; crown dark green, widely spreading. Collected in small brush fragrant flowers are white. The fruits are round in shape, with the "navel" at the top; fruit weight - a pound or more. Red and orange peel of mostly smooth (sometimes rough), elastic, dense, well-separated from the pulp. The flesh is juicy, bright orange, divided into 13 segments with thin septa. Maturing varieties of oranges is usually in December.
- "Hamlin" - yielding varieties with fruits of high quality, its fine-grained juicy flesh is very pleasant to the taste. The tree is small, well foliated. Flowers are white, fragrant. Fruits are medium in size, weighing about 300 g fruit shape is rounded, slightly flattened at the top and at the bottom. Thick crust with fruit with orange, very shiny skin can be easily separated from the pulp. Seeds in the pulp of little or not at all. The fruits of this variety oranges ripen in November.
- "KorolÑ‘k" - low tree, with a pyramidal crown. The fruits are round, oval at the base; fruit weight up to 250 g rind with dark orange peel, can be easily separated from the pulp. Fetuses in this class coarse dark red flesh, juicy and tender, very pleasant to the taste; fruit juice light pink and plentiful. Seeds in the flesh a little.
There are many other varieties of orange, suitable for growing in the house, but these - my favorite: they grow very quickly and abundantly fruit. Oranges are grown in pots for a long time. Louis XIV sent to the end of his minister Fouquet of envy for its magnificent orange trees that grew in the castle of Vaux-le-Comte. After this kind of deliverance from the host tree, the king ordered perevÑ‘zti welcome oranges in Versailles.
In Chinese, "orange" means "gold". The Chinese believe that the cultivation of oranges in the house brings good luck, abundance and prosperity. Therefore, they often give your loved ones a wonderful tree with golden fruit oranges.