As orange, mandarin - an ancient citrus crop cultivated by man before our era. Compared with other citrus, mandarin is the most common type in tropical Asia, China and Japan.
Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) - a small branched evergreen tree of the family Rutaceae with leathery lanceolate leaves. Petioles large leaves mandarin has small wings; life span of each sheet - up to four years. The height of adult mandarin (age about a quarter of a century) up to 3.5 meters, its spherical crown of the same diameter. Its quite large, fragrant, white flowers are bisexual.
Mandarin fruits - bright, small in size (on average 60-80 g), ploskookrugloy or slightly elongated, famous for fine refreshing taste and aroma - are formed on short branches without thorns. In contrast to the orange, mandarin peel from the fruit more delicate and easily cleaned off with slices of flesh, which are well separated from each other.
Mandarin varieties are divided into three groups:
- In the first group - a very noble-loving mandarins, having large leaves and relatively large yellowish-orange fruit with krupnobugristoy skin;
- The second group consists of thermophilic and more small-leaved tangerines, or Italian mandarin (Citrus reticulata deliciosa) with a rather large orange-red fruits slightly elongated shape, covered with plump skin (its smell some varieties sharp and not very pleasant);
- The third group includes Satsuma (or satsumas) from Japan, characterized by cold resistance, large leaves and small tonkokorymi yellowish-orange fruit (often with greenish on the skin). It Satsuma, carrying short little frost (to -7 degrees), successfully grown on the Black Sea coast.
In contrast to the noble and tangerines tangerines, satsumas in the fruit seeds are very rare - which is probably why this species is called seedless mandarin (Citrus unshin Marc.). His varieties when grown in containers usually grow to 1-1.5 m. Slender mandarin trees with a beautiful crown of slightly drooping branches covered with numerous dark green leaves, during heavy flowering and fruiting especially decorate the house and fill it with wonderful smells.
As a result of cross-breeding with other citrus mandarin obtain various hybrids:
- Clementine (Citrus clementina) - (mandarin x Pomeranian) - with small or srednekrupnymi, flattened, very fragrant orange-red fruits, covered with shiny thin skin (seeded clementines were called MONTREAL);
- Ellendale - (mandarin x x tangerine orange) - with orange-red seedless fruit size from medium to large, has an exquisite flavor and aroma;
- Tangory (Tangors) - (x tangerine orange) - have large (10-15 cm in diameter), flattened, reddish-orange fruit with relatively thick, coarse-skinned;
- Minneola (Minneola) - (tangerine x grapefruit) - are varied sizes of red-orange fruits (from small to very large), the shape - oblong-rounded, with a "hump" and "neck" at the top;
- Tangelo, or tangelos (Tangelo) - (mandarin x pomelo) - have large red-orange fruit the size of a medium orange;
- Santino (Suntina, or Sun Tina) - (Clementine x Orlando) - with fruit that looks like a noble tangerines, has an exquisite sweet taste and aroma;
- Uglies (Ugli, Ugly) - (x orange tangerine x grapefruit) - the largest among the hybrids (fruit diameter of 16 -18 cm), flattened, with a rough coarse-yellow-green, orange or yellow-brown skin.
For growing in the house, I recommend the following varieties of mandarin:
- "Satsumas" - weatherproof, early appearance of fruit, very productive varieties. Undersized tree with a spreading crown of thin, very flexible branches covered with corrugated sheet metal. This gorgeous tangerine branches, fast growing, abundant and readily blossoms. Pear-shaped fruits without seeds. When artificial lighting is growing incessantly.
- "Wrought-Vassa" - a strong tree with thick branches; branches reluctantly. This variety of mandarin can grow quite large for the size of the apartment. Leaves fleshy, hard. Blooms profusely. Fruits are medium-sized, orange-yellow.
- "Shiva Mikan" - a compact, fast-growing tree with large, thick, dark green foliage. Early, blooms perfectly. Yields average; fruit weighing up to '30
- "Murcott" ("Honey") - a very rare variety with a compact bush. The flesh of the tangerine, ripening in summer, sweet as honey
Mandarin - undemanding plant and, in contrast to the orange, not easily shed its leaves with a sharp contrast in light or changes in care. Summer container with a tangerine is desirable to expose to fresh air, protected from the wind in a place with a diffused light.
Propagated by seeds and vegetatively Mandarin.
Seeds extracted from the fruit, immediately sown in the fertile soil of an easy. Mandarin seedlings appear in about a month; at a young age, they grow very slowly. Tree grown from seed, begins fruiting only 6-8 years of age.
Cuttings rooted mandarin bad.
Easier and faster to just get the fruit from grafted plants, which are beginning to bear fruit in 2-4 years. Practiced vaccination mandarin "eye", reproduction air layering. Air slips in Mandarin to do so: to choose a suitable three-year tree twig, which spring the bark is removed in the form of a ring width of 2 cm. Around the Rings tie "funnel" with a substrate made of oiled cardboard, thick polyethylene or other materials.
Securing the lower part of a branch of the "funnel" in it poured fertile soil, sand or well-humidified moss - so that the substrate is in contact with the ring. The substrate should be moist at all times. When layering mandarin roots appear, cut it and put a twig with roots in the pot.