This is an attractive evergreen citrus tree genus Fortunella Japanese call "Kinkan", which means "golden orange", and the Chinese - "kumquat" ("golden apple").
Kumquat is considered the birthplace of China (the southern and south-eastern part), which is a plant in the XIX century, it was brought to Europe and America. At the time of fruiting tree completely covered with small golden-yellow or bright orange fruit. Fruits Kinkan form elongated-oval or round - they are the smallest of citrus, grape size of an average or large olive.
The genus Fortunella (Fortunella) distinguish two subgenera and several species of kumquats; common so-called citrus margarita (F. margarita) and Kinkan Japanese (F. japonica). There are numerous natural and artificial hybrids of kumquat and citrus plants: Calamondin (x kumquat mandarin) laymkvat (lime and kumquat) oranzhekvat (mandarin x kumquat) tsitrumkvat (Citrus trifoliata x kumquat Japanese) tsitranzhkvat (Citrus trifoliata x x orange kumquat) , tsitranzhdin (kumquat and mandarin hybrid x hybrid trifoliata and orange), and others.
Kumquat tree has many advantages: It has a miniature and compact growth, actively develops beautiful bush and dense crown with a few leaves, fragrant white blooms with flowers rozoviznoy and abundantly fruitful. Kinkan so popular, happy growers grown in the house, often used for bonsai. Ornamental kumquat tree to preserve compactness, limit the size of its pot.
At room conditions Kinkan tree grows up to 1.5 meters; this plant for the normal development requires a very large container. Room for all the good culture Kinkan varieties, as well as its hybrid of sour mandarin. At home, often cultivated varieties Kinkan "Marum", "Nagas" (fruit in the form of olive, orange), "Maeve" (sweet round fruit), "Indio Mandarinquat" (orange bell-shaped fruit, it is a little larger than most varieties Kinkan). These varieties are resistant kumquat, kept lowering the temperature to -10-12 degrees.
Trees Kinkan under ambient conditions during growth occurs from late April to early May and lasts 30-50 days, depending on conditions. In contrast to the major citrus Kinkan adult has one, and the young plants - two periods of growth; increase an average of 6-10 cm.
Kinkan blooms in July and August; bloom lasts 5-7 days. 2-3 weeks after the first flowering tree can blossom again. Flowers are bisexual kumquat; cross-pollination, but it is possible and self-pollination. Flowering Kinkan, like all citrus grown in ambient conditions, and can be adjusted. The fruits ripen in December and January.
Lighting. In the summer, tree Kinkan should keep in diffused sunlight. In winter, on the contrary, should establish maximum natural light and access to direct sunlight, having goroshok with a plant on the south window. Practiced artificial supplementary lighting in winter.
High. Kumquat loves hot summers (25-30 degrees) and cool winter (15-18 degrees). Sapling love saving content in the fresh air in the garden. Kinkan should be protected from excessive heat during the day and from hypothermia during the night hours.
To prevent overheating of the roots of kumquat and avoid rapid desiccation of the soil in the pot, it is placed in a box with damp moss, peat, sand or sawdust, or dropwise pot in garden soil for the summer, or whiten the outside container or cover from the sun with an insulating material. Land in a pot on top of mulch with manure, peat, grass, etc.. During budding, flowering and fruit Kinkan optimal air and soil temperature is 15-18 degrees.
Humidity. Kinkan likes moist air. With a high dry air (especially in winter) kumquat often shed its leaves, its attacking pests (arrowhead scale, spider mites). Relative humidity can be improved by regular spraying crown Kinkan defend water at room temperature, as well as the installation of winter on heating registers or near the sapling bowls with water.
Watering. It is important to maintain an adequate and regular watering kumquat. Spring tree Kinkan usually watered every other day in the summer - every day, maintaining optimum soil moisture. Kumquat winter should be watered moderately and rarely (1-2 times a week). Watering Kinkan better to use to defend the water temperature above room temperature; of cold water in kumquat leaves turn yellow and fall off.
Fertilizing. Terms of payment and the amount of fertilizer, their value depends on the size of the container, from the fertile soil, the age and condition of the plant, the time of year and other factors. The smaller the size of the pot and the larger the plant, the more likely it fertilized. From March to September fruiting kumquat trees are usually fed 2-3 times a month, and the remainder of the period - not more than 1 time per month.
Tree Kinkan fertilize an aqueous solution of mineral fertilizers at the rate of 2-3 g of ammonium nitrate, 2.1 g of potassium salts or potassium chloride and 4.6 g of superphosphate, dissolved in 1 liter of water. Useful solution kumquat dressing of wood ash. Spring and summer fertilization (no chlorine!) It is useful to alternate with the introduction of slurry (1 part cow manure to 10 parts water).
Transplantation. Fertile Kinkan transplanted in late February-early March (before the shoot growth), not more than 2-3 years. Kumquat transplant from a smaller to a larger container handler method is carried out, while avoiding damage to the earth coma, braided roots. Transfer completely revamp drainage; as a drain on the bottom of the container is placed shards shards convex side up, on top of which is poured coarse sand (3-4 cm).
Placed on drainage layer of fertile soil, appropriate to increase the height of the pot. In part, to avoid damaging the roots, replace the top layer of soil in earthen coma. The resulting gap between the side walls of the new pot and a lump of earth with roots filled with fresh potting soil, compacting it along the walls. Transplanted tree Kinkan abundantly watered and for 10-15 days in a warm place pritenÑ‘nnoe place. During this period, it is useful to daily spraying crown of lukewarm water.
For growing kumquat use soil mix consisting of sod land, fertile and structure of garden soil, rotted manure or leaf humus with the addition of medium sand in the ratio (2: 1: 1: 0.5). For young plants require relatively light soil mix, and for fruit trees kumquat - a heavy (number of garden soil or sod increase by 1.5-2 times).
Reproduction. Kinkan, like all citrus fruits, can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering and grafting:
- Kumquat seeds planted in a pot with a mixture of garden soil and river sand. First shoots appear usually within 30-40 days, and sometimes even after 2 months. Seedlings Kinkan dive in phase 4-5 leaflets; they are painfully react to transplant. Pre-(10-15 days before picking) without removing the plants from the soil, they pruned taproots - without a trim they do not branch out and grow in length and curl at the bottom of the pot rings.
The operation is carried out with a knife cutting the roots at a depth of 8-10 cm, inserting it into the ground at an angle of 45 Â° at a distance of 8-10 cm from the plant. When swordplay seedlings kumquat is carefully removed from the pot and transplanted into individual pots. Plants grown from seeds do not retain varietal characteristics, late come into fruition (10 years later). Seed propagation method Kinkan used only for breeding purposes and for growing rootstocks.
At room content kumquat propagated mainly by cuttings.
- Cuttings kumquat can be carried out throughout the year, but the best results are obtained by carrying out this work in April. Pre-treatment of cuttings Kinkan growth factor (for example, an aqueous solution of the drug at a concentration of KANU 100-150 mg / l during the day) accelerates the process of rooting, increases the number of established cuttings and better root development.
Cutting cuttings Kinkan use autumn shoots, harvested from healthy fruit-bearing plants. Green, flexible, yet not enough lignified shoots cut into 5-8 cm long cuttings with two or three buds. The lower section of the cutting perpendicular make 0.5 cm below the kidneys, upper (oblique) - 1 cm above the last bud. Leaf blades of the cutting, depending on their sizes cut by one-third or two thirds. The lower sections of the cuttings to avoid rotting prisshayut charcoal powder.
Rooting cuttings kumquat is carried out in a pot under a glass jar. But the bottom of the pot is placed drainage (sand, gravel), cover it with a thin layer of sphagnum moss on top and sprinkled lightly compacted layer of fertile soil, covering it and then a layer of washed river sand thickness of 3-4 cm. Pot with a diameter of 7-9 cm are planted 3 5 kumquat cuttings to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, cover their glass jar and put the pot in a warm place for scattered sunlight.
Care cuttings kumquat is to maintain the optimal temperature (20-25 degrees) and regular watering water, the temperature of which should be 2-3 degrees above room temperature. Under these conditions, cuttings Kinkan 15-20 days formed roots, buds start to grow rapidly. Rooted plants are planted in pots with a diameter of 10-12 cm with a soil mix consisting of 2 pieces of sod land, 1 part leaf humus or decomposed manure, and 2.1 parts of river sand.
- During the multiplication of kumquat layering on fruiting plants collected in the spring new shoots or branch length of 20-25 cm and a thickness of 0.5-0.6 cm. Above 10 cm from the base of the branches in the cortex makes two circular incision (0.8-1 cm across apart) and the ring is removed bark. All leaves Kinkan located 5 cm above and below the ring is cut.
A small plastic container (diameter 7.8 cm) carefully cut along the center on the bottom halves of the cut in the center of two half-thickness branches (shoot). Capacity tie to a branch (escape) kumquat so that the cut bark was located in the center of the tank. Halves capacity fasten wire and fill it with a mixture of peat and sand (1: 1); periodically moisten the substrate. After 20-30 days above radial cut crust formed roots.
After about 2 months of escape (branch) kumquat below the tank bottom is cut, half her gently divide, a new plant with a lump of soil transplanted into a pot with a diameter of 12-15 cm. Rooted Kinkan regularly and abundantly watered, placed on a 10-15 day pritenÑ‘nnoe place and then put on the scattered sunlight.
- During the multiplication of kumquat grafted rootstock are usually its seedlings have reached the base of the thickness of 0.6-0.8 cm. Vaccination is also recommended for the stock shoots Kinkan pontsirusa trÑ‘hlistochkovogo or greypruta. Often practiced method immunizations - shield vpriklad or regular budding eye cultivar for the crust. Vaccinated Kinkan carried out in the period of sap flow and strong growth of shoots on the scion and rootstock.
After a month and a half, when the eyes get accustomed, the aerial parts of seedlings kumquat
cut to the site of inoculation and start the formation of the crown grows escape. Wild undergrowth on the stump removed. Kinkan grown from cuttings and slips, somewhat earlier come into fruition than grafted plants, but do worse in the most affected kamedetecheniem. Graft kumquats are more hardy and resistant to unfavorable growth.
Kumquat growers pleases not only the appearance of slender trees and fluffy, but great taste, very aromatic fruit contains a large amount of essential oils, vitamins and minerals. Sweet and very juicy fresh fruits Kinkan eaten whole, without peeling, because they have a very thin skin, a little tart, closely adjacent to the sweetish or sour pulp.
Kumquat sour fruits are good as a snack with strong drink. Apply Kinkan fruits and cooking: they are used to decorate the table, added to fruit salads, sauces made from them, baked with meat and fish, cook them jam, candied and made tselnoplodnye candied. It has long been bactericidal Kinkan fruits are used in folk medicine of the East to treat fungal infections, respiratory diseases, and even to relieve hangover.