Pests of citrus plants.
Of insect pests on citrus plants are the most common scale insects. Scale insects colonize on the branches, leaves, fruits; they suck the juices of plants, weakening them and dramatically reducing the harvest. At the same time there is citrus abscission of leaves and fruits, drying of the young shoots. Scale insects - insects breed quickly, whose presence on the plant inexperienced growers did not immediately notice: it looks like a flake being not so easy to recognize as a pest.
Stuck to the plant, small scale insects larvae become immobile and form a flat plate of 2-4 mm, securely closing them from the outside world (so to fight very hard to scale insects). Scale insects secrete a sticky syrup-like honeydew, which prevents the plant to breathe. The emergence of brilliant selections on the leaves should be for an amateur plant alarm and indicate the presence of pests.
Citrus are some species of scale insects:
- Rod-shaped (elongated plate, yellow, 3.5 mm long);
- Wild orange (brown panel that resembles a comma);
- Yellow Wild orange (yellow plate with a diameter of 3 mm); settles on the bottom
Measures to combat scale insects:
Prevention: the collection and burning of fallen leaves; smearing wounds from cutting garden pitch; thorough removal of dead pobegov.Schitovok carefully removed from the leaves of a cotton swab, and then wipe the leaves with a cotton swab dipped in vodka. Extermination: spraying the plants with 2% oil emulsion (at low temperature is above zero). Also helps to 2-3 times the processing aktellikom (2 ml / l) at weekly intervals.
Coccidae and mealybugs - actively breeding pests up to 5 mm, brown or grayish-purple. When you check Coccidae citrus scale insects and plant growth slows down, they gradually wither, the leaves fall; often comes death of plants. Adult flies immobile and in the larval stage and ciliospores these pests as Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, very small and almost invisible, while moving throughout the plant. Wax allocation scale insects look like lumps of cotton wool.
Measures to combat Coccidae and scale insects:
The most effective means of 4-fold treatment (weekly intervals) with a solution of malathion (3.9 g / liter of water). Processing plants spend outdoors during the warm season.
In addition, you can use malathion and a variety of other means:
- Soap and kerosene emulsion: in 1 liter of water diluted with 5 g of soap (or detergent) and 10 g of kerosene;
- Copper-soap liquid: 9 liters of water was diluted to 200 g of soap and 20 g of mustard powder, and then with constant stirring, poured in a thin stream a solution of copper sulfate (20 g / l of water);
- Soap and tobacco and alcohol solution, which is used for the settlement of a strong plant pests. It is prepared as follows: 0.5 liters of hot water was dissolved 45 g of soap, then
there was poured 40 g of denatured alcohol and 1.5 g of 20-25% strength tobacco extract and the volume was adjusted to 1 liter, adding water;
- Paste "Surprise" or "Dion" is applied to the plant with an old toothbrush, and after 1 hour, washed well with plant;
- Coniferous extract - 2 tablespoons of the extract was dissolved in a half-liter jar of warm water, add a little for better adhesion of soap or detergent.
Spider mites - very small (microscopic), actively mushrooming pests (each female lays up to 150 eggs during the summer gives up to 10 generations). Colouring mites can be brownish, with a yellow or reddish tinge. Mites settle on the shoots and the bottom of the page, move rapidly when disturbed.
First, they affect more tender shoots and leaves nevyzrevshie, and then gradually move on to other parts of the plant. Twigs of plants mites tighten thin web. Surface of leaves damaged by injections mites, covered with whitish-yellow dots and spots. If time does not destroy the mites, the leaves turn yellow and fully Twist and later dry up and fall off.
Measures against ticks:
Effective way - 3-5 times the processing plant 35% of th sulfarid paste (10 g / l of water). Solution with a sponge or cotton swab was washed thoroughly with whole plant. Treatment is repeated at intervals of 7-10 days for a full pest control at all stages of development. When using paste sulfarid, as with all other pesticides must observe the following rules:
- Pre-test the effect of the drug on two or three leaves of the plant, and only 1-2 days in the absence of burns to conduct the full treatment;
- Do not carry out treatment against pests during flowering and early stages of fruit set;
- If necessary, treatment against pests during fruiting carefully shut off.
Citrus red mites - very small, almost invisible pests, settles on the leaves, shoots, fruits; suck the juice from them, thus causing them harm. Against citrus red mite is carried out preventive spraying a 2% oil emulsion.
Aphids - a rather large insect soft yellow-green, 1-3 mm long. Over the summer, aphids produce from 14 to 20 generations. These pests settle on the underside of leaves and suck sap from the leaves; young leaves at the same time minimized.
Measures to combat aphids:
A solution of green soap or detergent; or a strong solution of potassium permanganate; or soap-oil emulsion (in 1 liter of warm water dissolve 1 tablespoon of any soap powder and half a tablespoon of household machine oil).
Also in the fight against aphids can be used:
- Ash extract: 300 g sifted ashes zalivayut1 liter of boiling water and put 30 minutes into the fire; before use diluted with water to a volume of 10 liters;
- Tobacco broth: 40 g of tobacco or tobacco pushing one night in 1 liter of water and then boiled for at least 1 hour, cooled and water is added to the original volume.
Before spraying for better adhesion to the broth add a little detergent or soap (against aphids and mites);
- Weak vinegar solution (concentration not exceeding 3.5%) - carefully with a soft sponge or a brush dipped in this solution, the whole plant. Repels aphids and scented geraniums, located next to the citrus plant.
Completely destroy aphids and mites, you can use 3-4 times spraying plants with a strong solution of salt normal food (at the rate of 80 g / l of warm water). Cause great damage to citrus thrips small elongated, which settle on the underside of the leaves; This dramatically reduces the yield of fruit. Against thrips use the same oil emulsion, as in the fight against scale insects.
Earthworms are not pests of plants. Their presence in a pot with a small amount of citrus is very useful. But when earthworms multiplies too much, then they lead to the oppression of potted plants. For the expulsion of worms, a solution of mustard (1 teaspoon to 1 liter of water), which watered the soil - the worms crawl to the surface where they are collected and transferred to the open ground.
Applying pesticides in pest plants should be careful and observe the following rules: wear a robe, a head tie a kerchief on the face - a gauze bandage on the hands should be rubber gloves. Remove all food and open the window. In summer the plant should be treated in the open air. In the process, you can not smoke, drink water or other liquid to eat.
After processing plants should be washed robe and scarf, change shoes, wash your hands thoroughly with warm soapy water and, if possible, take a warm shower. Especially careful with pesticides need to be gardeners, who have small children and pets. All preparations for the control of pests and plant diseases should be stored separately in a locked cabinet to prevent access of children and animals.
Given that in a residential area far from safe use of chemicals, the pests better fight, using infusions or decoctions of the so-called insecticidal plants - such as garlic, citrus peel, peel onions, yarrow and others. Garlic is effective against ticks: take 150-170 grams of garlic, pounded it and pour 1 liter of warm water, and then infused for 5 days, filtered and sprayed plant.
Onions are used against mites and aphids: take a small onion (weight 15 g) were ground and pour 1 liter of water. Allowed to stand for 7 hours, and then filtered infusion and used for spraying. Yarrow grows everywhere, it can be used against mites and other pests: take 80 g of dried herb, crushed, pour 1 liter of boiling water, infused for 59-48 hours, then gently sprayed the affected plant.
Plant potatoes used against aphids, mites, thrips. For infusion, a 100 g of fresh leaves, crush and pour 1 liter of water. Infused for 3 hours, then strain and spray the plants.