Disease prevention and the protection of gladioli from pests.
Gladiolus are thermophilic, and in August become noticeably cooler days and colder nights. If the cool weather added to incessant rains, it increases the likelihood of fungal diseases in gladioli. Gladiolus, lacking heat in bad weather since the beginning of the summer and until the digging should be treated against fungal diseases as prophylaxis, even if there was evidence of disease.
Famous Moscow gladiolusovod VA Lobaznov advises growers to develop its system of care for gladioli, it is for your site with the characteristic of the area of â€‹â€‹soil and climatic conditions. Applying a high level of technical measures necessary for gladiolus more than any other culture, it is possible to completely eliminate non-communicable diseases that are caused by the influence of unfavorable environmental factors.
The greatest harm caused Gladiolus pathogenic fungi and bacteria - the cause of infectious diseases. Mushrooms that are specific parasites gladiolus, live mainly in the surface layer of soil, where the main part of the area of â€‹â€‹occurrence of the root system of gladiolus. Microparasites can not eat living tissue and are activated when you are dead tissue to infiltrate the dead parts of the roots and corms of gladioli. Therefore it is very important to keep the soil free from plant residues - then the parasites will not shelter and they will be destroyed by other fungi antagonists.
If for some reason there was death of the spine gladiolus, it can infiltrate a parasitic fungus that emits toxins that kill the surrounding tissue to advance deep into the plant. From this perspective, it is important to expose the roots rarely the root system to mechanical stress - this can happen when loosening hard soil, which, turning large pieces can break the roots.
Therefore, it is necessary to follow the structure of the soil, making it loose and easily treated. Other fungi penetrate the lamina gladiolus, emitting toxins and killing the leaf tissue; spots appear, preventing the penetration of nutrients into the gladiolus corms. Manure, especially nepereprevshego can promote Fusarium in gladiolus.
Raw cold soil may be the cause of gladioli to botrytis. In heavy, wet, acidic soils activated dry rot pathogen - soil-borne fungus. Raw clay and peat soils with closely spaced groundwater, as well as excessive liming promote breeding colonies of bacteria, which cause scab - infection occurs in the soil in contact with the bacteria corms.
Gladiolus and susceptible to viral diseases (jaundice, mosaic) - they are transmitted from diseased to healthy plants by sucking insects or mechanical damage to parts of gladiolus (wounds at the vase life of inflorescences, mikrorany from friction neighboring plants with frequent landing). Cut inflorescences should be done carefully, with a sharp narrow knife, puncturing spike differences in the fourth and fifth leaves and gently twisting it.
Diagnosis of diseases and their control in amateur floriculture are difficulties due to the lack of simple and accurate methods for determining losses and low efficacy and toxicity of chemicals.
To protect against disease gladiolus VA Lobaznov recommends holding the most important events:
- Sanitation (destruction with beds gladioli infected plants);
- Helpful (planting healthy corms and preventive spraying healthy plants). For the prevention of disease by spraying with garlic extract (100 g of garlic per 10 liters of water), in early September - watering gladioli solution of potassium permanganate (5 g per 10 liters of water) to disinfect and enrich the soil with potassium;
- Fighter (destruction of disease-causing agents);
- Therapeutic (treatment of diseased plants).
In addition, to combat diseases of great importance following complex methods:
- Agronomy (plowing, weeding, crop rotation, etc.);
- Biological (use of antibiotics and fungal antagonists);
- Physical (use of high temperatures to warm the soil);
- Chemical (use of fungicides for disease control gladioli, not forgetting that the chemicals have a negative impact on the person).
There shall be periodic spraying gladiolus thrips and diseases of alternating solutions of copper sulfate, copper oxychloride (20 g per 10 liters of water), and with a strong spread of diseases (yellow leaves) 3-4 days to a few times to spray gladiolus solution of copper oxychloride at the rate of 30 g 10 liters of water.
AN breeder Gromov said that August and September - a very important months for culture gladioli: plants should receive all of the elements of mineral nutrition and physiologically active substances for the formation of healthy, not prone to pests and diseases bulbs. From the first of September is particularly closely watching the sanitary condition of landings, "suspicious" specimens were immediately removed and select a piece of land around the diseased plants.
Infected plants were destroyed, and the land necessary to anneal the metal sheet, placing it on an iron barrel with the burning of rubbish. To combat fungal diseases can be used decoctions and infusions of plants defenders (marigolds, garlic, sage, celandine, tomato leaves, etc..). Against thrips and whitefly conducted focal spraying insecticide gladioli.
Florist M. Lunev for disease prevention uses celandine and calendula (chop green parts of plants, put them in a container, pour hot water (1: 2), to insist 2-3 days prior to treatment to 10 liters of infusion add a handful of washing powder), the processing gladioli once a week during the summer. To repel thrips between the rows of gladiolus he puts garlic.
Florist D.A.Kurdyapin advises in bad weather to spray planting gladioli 1 once a week (and in warm dry weather 1 every 2 weeks) in turn one of the solutions (in the form of heat)
- Permanganic acid (potassium permanganate) 1.5 g in 10 liters of water;
- Copper sulphate is 20 g and 200 g of green soap in 10 liters of water;
- Copper oxychloride - 25 g per 10 liters of water.
Disease prevention, prevents the appearance of pests, culling and destruction of patients gladioli, disinfection of instruments at the vase life of inflorescences in a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate, preventing excess or shortage of fertilizers, proper care of plantings - a pledge of healthy growing gladioli.