Petunias - indispensable inmates flower beds, rabatok, curbs, vases, balconies and windows. They give bright fragrant cascades of flowers of all shades of the rainbow from early summer until frost; sometimes flowers completely cover the leaves and shoots.
Petunia (Petunia) of the family Solanaceae - a perennial herb; about 30 species of petunias comes from America. Petunia blooms in the year of sowing, so often used as annuals, although, if desired, loved by the plant can be dug in the fall from the garden and keep the house until the next season, and has increased him.
By crossing different species obtained hybrid petunia garden (P. x hybrida) - erect or creeping, height 20 to 80 cm (surfinii shoots up to 2 meters). Form bushes petunias varies from nearly spherical compact to sprawling ampelnoe. Her strong gustovetvyaschiesya branches and leaves pubescent; stems woody at the base. Funnel-shaped, very fragrant flowers petunias solitary; located in the axils of leaves on a regular edged short sturdy stalks.
Colouring simple or double flowers petunias most diverse: white, cream, yellow, blue, purple, blue, purple, pink, carmine, bright red of various shades; there are two-colored petunias - with a border, spot, star, or strips of a different hue. Petals of some varieties of petunias decorate exquisite corrugation or thick fringe.
Flowering petunias in favorable conditions, lasts several months, usually from late June to October (up to significant frost). Podkorachivanie too regrown shoots enhances branching shrub petunias and gives them the splendor, and the removal of faded flowers causes the formation of new buds. Fruit of petunias - a box with numerous small seeds.
Diverse varieties of hybrid petunias are divided into several groups:
- Multiflora petunias - have a huge number of flowers up to 5 cm in diameter. Unpretentious, grow well in full sun to any garden soil.
- Terry Multiflora petunias - have a lot of terry-like carnation flowers up to 5 cm in diameter.
- Large-flowered petunia - less profusely, more heat-loving and demanding to good growing conditions. Diameter of flowers from 7 to 10 cm.
- Terry large-petunias - very spectacular, reminiscent of roses.
- Fringed petunias (fimbriata) - have large flowers, decorated by krayut fringe.
- Excellent petunias (superbissium) have very large flowers (up to 12 cm in diameter) with a wavy edge and a plurality of tÑ‘mnookrashennyh veins in the throat.
Surfiniya - is a special hybrid petunias, featuring strong growth in long hanging stems and extremely plentiful, sumptuous flowering. Coloring large (up to 6 cm in diameter) flowers surfiny different, mostly saturated colors with darker or lighter throat.
Petunia is very light (which carries a weak shading) and thermophilic, better developed in the fertile, lÑ‘kih, slightly acidic soils. Upon the occurrence of prolonged cold weather and rain suspends petunia bloom, and upon the occurrence of a good weather again renews it. Petunia is drought resistant, but with regular watering will reward more beautiful lush bushes and abundant flowering.
Petunia propagated by seeds, cuttings. In petunia seeds are very small, so you need to give developing small seedlings petunias much attention and provide regular care. Petunia seeds sown seedlings from February until the end of March; seeding the surface without sealing the soil. It is advisable to sow the seeds of petunias, as well as other small-seeded plants, rare (to seedlings not oppress one another) and before sowing to take measures that prevent the emergence of "black feet" and mold the soil.
Petunia seeds can be sown on snow (it is put on the surface of the substrate layer in a pot 1-1.5 cm) on which seeds are clearly visible; melting snow delays seeds into the soil. Crops covered with glass or plastic.
For seed germination petunias need to heat (23-25 â€‹â€‹degrees); shoots appear in a week and a half. Top layer of soil in the pot with crops should not be eaten raw, but should not be too dry, so the shoots are often tested (at least twice a day). Watered seedlings petunias better bottom of the pan. In order to avoid a "black feet" petunia seedlings after drying the soil periodically sprayed with a light solution of potassium permanganate, regularly turned over and rubbed glass, air "teplichku." Seedlings of petunia is grown at a temperature of 20 degrees.
Rare planting seeds allows the pick petunia seedlings when they will develop 3-4 true leaves. But if necessary (the rapid spread of "black feet") is carried out urgent pick seedlings at earlier stages of development, in order to save at least some of the crops.
Before sparring seedlings soil is moistened. In petunia seedlings short podsemyadolnoe knee rosette of leaves, so when swordplay seedlings to hook stick, take for leaf and carefully removed from the ground, keeping the land on the spine. When swordplay can not deepen into the ground point of growth petunias, so during backfill soil seedling cotyledons slightly lifted off the ground.
When the seedlings petunias grow up, they begin to feed (stretched out due to lack of light seedlings do not need to give a nitrogen fertilizer). In soil planted seedlings of petunia after spring frosts, at a distance of 20-40 cm. Petunia has branched roots, shallow penetrating into the soil; Transfer of its root system is easily restored.
In areas with a mild climate and warm early spring can sow the seeds directly into the ground petunias. Petunias bloom through 55-95 days after emergence, depending on the variety. In summer you can spend cuttings shoots liked petunias.