Roses (preparation and planting).
Roses require much more attention and care compared to other flowering horticultural crops. To grow luxuriantly and continuously blooming rose bush to get him a nice cut flowers - should be properly plant a sapling, its time to feed, shelter for the winter, in a timely manner to open in the spring, well-cut, hold the prevention and control of pests and diseases.
Grafted and non-grafted climbing roses.
Grafted roses on a briar with only one purpose: as soon as possible (within 1-2 years) and cheaper to obtain and implement a standard hardy rose seedlings. A non-grafted rose to such a standard can lead only for 2-3 years, which is less favorable to producers due to increased cost of seedlings due to the increase in their cost of production. In addition, the non-grafted roses obtained by cutting the stalk with three buds and rose hips for vaccination is only one kidney, which is much more profitable for producers.
Care grafted on wild rose climbing roses differs slightly and is as follows:
1 Depth of planting a climbing rose bush depends on the site of inoculation, which should be buried about 10 cm. Such deep planting is needed in order to have plants gradually grew roots in the culture of the bush. With deep planting conditions are created when grafted climbing rose on the cultural roots formed shoots and rose, which was grafted rose loses its purpose and eventually dies.
2 The complexity of care grafted on wild rose plant is that during the summer in climbing rose constantly need to remove the wild shoots - not just cut it at ground level, and dig wild undergrowth from the root collar rose and very carefully (without leaving "stumps ") cut it with a sharp knife from the root collar. If you leave at least part of the shoot of wild rose, from its dormant buds to grow lots of new shoots that in the future even more complicate their removal.
3 Graft climbing roses planted in such a way that the place of grafting is above the soil surface, are short-lived compared to the root-genuine as rosehips - the plant is deciduous and evergreen cultural roses. During the growing season grafted roses this discrepancy scion and rootstock leads to the gradual depletion of the whole plant.
In addition, the new buds and shoots on climbing rose seedlings formed where it is well lit by the sun. If the place of grafting is above ground level, the new shoots are formed on the rootstock (rose) - there is abundant wild shoots. In dry hot weather the cultural part of the plant lacks water and food, and so this plant is poorly developed.
And only with proper planting a climbing rose, when the root collar significantly recessed, formed due to the cultural roots of the plant shoots constantly gets the right amount of water and nutrients, and are not so dependent on the seasonality of the stock-dog-rose.
Time planting climbing roses.
In our climate, I prefer the non-grafted plant climbing roses in the fall, from mid-September to mid-October. 10-12 days after the autumn planting, the plant produced young small roots, which until frost hardened and well-wintering in the air-dry shelter. In spring, these roses are developing both the root and aboveground parts; quickly formed a strong hive. Young blooming roses at the same time with older plants.
Climbing roses planted in the spring, usually stunted for 2 weeks and require more attention. If you decide to plant grafted roses in spring, the shoots of seedlings should be shortened to 2-3 buds. But it is better to buy own-rooted climbing roses, although in the first year they are developing weaker grafted roses. Inexperienced rosarian recommended to buy non-grafted roses with closed root system (in containers) and to handle them in the ground in spring or summer.
It is necessary to know to which group each bought variety roses. This will help to accurately select the landing site, to properly care, shelter and trim their pets to maximize durability and decorative varieties, good cutting. Roses planted in groups, it is desirable, this is due to their shelter for the winter: the more air will be on the air-dry shelter, the more successful wintering.
Preparing the ground for planting roses.
Roses are very sensitive to an excess of moisture in the soil. Stagnation of rain and especially the spring melt water for them is totally unacceptable. Therefore selected for planting roses plot should have a slope of (preferably in a southerly direction), sufficient for water runoff.
To establish the suitability of the site for planting roses, you should determine the depth of the water table. The roots of climbing roses go on a two-meter depth, so it is desirable to treat the soil to a depth of at least 1 meter.
For normal development of roses is very important the permeability of the subsoil. Excess rainwater should not linger in an area of â€‹â€‹the roots, otherwise it may cause their death from lack of oxygen. If ground water come close to the soil surface, the roses are planted on the hill (subject to the protection of the roots from frost).
But come this way: dig a hole (not reaching the ground water level) on its bottom is placed a large flat stone, concreted or bottom of the pit. At this barrier poured fertile land. Seedling climbing rose planted in a hole, shortening the half taproots. Stone or concrete will not move deep taproot of roses, and then the roots of the plants will be placed horizontally.
Roses grow best in fertile air-and moisture-permeable loam. They are not suitable for heavy clay and light sandy soils. Before planting roses in clay garden soil previously making sand and sand - clay. Better to take clay from the upper layers of the soil and before to make it into the ground, it is desirable to sustain the clay in stacks or piles of not less than 12 months. The clay faster acquired crumbly texture and the desired chemical composition, it is mixed with lime and in a warm and dry season several times shovel.
Addition of clay or sand regulate only breathability and moisture-holding capacity of the soil. For growing strong, vysokodekorativnyh climbing roses need enough fertile, humus-rich soil. Improve soil fertility making them humus, humus. Together with organic fertilizers in the soil make the duration of action phosphate fertilizers (eg bone meal) and pure cultures of soil bacteria, processing unavailable for plant nutrition matter in them digestible compounds (eg, phosphobacterin).
At the site of planting roses removed and placed in the upper side, sod layer of soil. Podzol removed from the site or apply for permanent device tracks. Infertile soil layer is used for leveling the site. On the surface of bare subsoil evenly distribute the sand or clay, lime, compost, humus, peat and phosphate fertilizers. Carried out at the site digging deep. Do this at the end of the summer.
The following spring, the soil loosened. And if the site is characterized by heavy, clayey soils, it once again dug to improving additives are evenly distributed in the subsoil. Aligned on the landing roses return topsoil, making it fertilizer, sand or clay. After digging to a depth of 20-25 cm portion loosened.
In the context of amateur gardening to determine the number and nature of improving soil additives used folk techniques and signs. Texture of the soil is determined by rolling it between your palms. Soil acidity is determined by the area growing weeds on it.
Storage of own-rooted roses.
Although roses autumn planting are doing better than the spring, Belarus (except Brest region) roses are often planted in the spring - in late April-early May, as soon as the ground thaws. Rose seedlings with closed root system growing in containers, it is possible to handle the garden until July. In own-rooted roses first year of growing roots can not withstand even a weak soil freezing, so acquired autumn seedlings kept in a cool basement or on a windowsill in an apartment.
If roses are kept in pots on the windowsill, until the end of January they are watered very carefully, in small doses. The soil should be slightly moist. After increasing the length of the day roses are fed, watered enough for normal plant development. If the soil before planting the roses begin to grow too rapidly, to delay their growth need prischipnut top of actively growing shoots.
But in a dry and warm air apartment intensively breeds spider mite - a scourge of roses in the house. In addition to spraying, the plants to increase moisture, prevention of pests and flushing often need to wash it with water. Most harmless, but also the most time consuming operation to rescue rose against ticks - shower. Ripening period ticks at 20 degrees is 7 days. That is for the seven days and treat the plant out of the shower with cold water. Miss a day - start all over again.
To curb the reproduction of mites on roses in the house, it is recommended for the winter spend 4-6 treatments (each treatment consists of 2-3 sprays every 7 days) sulfuric the tar emulsion. To those who sell these chemicals against mites pests often develop resistance.
Sulfur-Tar emulsion prepared from sulfur-tar soap which is sold in pharmacies to kill lice. Concentration of 1-2% is sufficient. Recently appeared on the rose leaves frequently inspect as mite primarily affects young tender leaves. In the open field due to sufficient moisture mite poorly developed, in his garden a lot of enemies (predatory mites, lacewing, etc..).
Bought their own roots in the autumn roses can prikopat in the ground in a high place. To this was added dropwise shoots obliquely, leaving on the surface of a pair of kidneys. Each plant should be well hide fallen leaves (preferably maple, it is less slÑ‘zhivaetsya); under the leaves, it is desirable to put any material deterrent mice.
Top cover over the seedling roses put any frame (can be turned big box), providing an air gap. Lay the frame on top only lutrasilom or its combination with polyethylene film is undesirable: lutrasil pass water, and when to hide it on top of another and polyethylene film, it is quite possible that vypreyut rose in February.
A small area of â€‹â€‹the traditional air-dry shelter in the harsh winter with a small amount of snow can not provide a reliable winter rose seedlings. In this case, to guarantee their preservation is better to cover the frame with fiberglass: water almost does not pass, "breathes", perfectly captures the spring sunlight. This shelter roses tested me this harsh winter, when the snow in the most severe frosts we had - rose wintered well.
If the rose bushes arranged in rows, it is desirable to hide from a large area (shelter roses can be combined with the shelter of other plants). Straying reliable and robust general framework, everything is closed the whole structure of the polyethylene film.
In the spring you need as soon as possible remove the film. And if the winter is warm enough or no snow, the film should be removed in early March. With the removal of the rest of the shelter can not hurry: usually cover the full term of roses associated with the final thaw. (The second year of life, young non-grafted roses can be concealed as harboring adults rose bushes, only further insulate the base of the bush leaf. Third year unproven rose harbor as usual).
When planting climbing roses distance between the bushes set depending on the desire for decorative effect, but no closer than one meter from each other. Before planting, all broken and crushed roots pruned roses. Sections were carefully powdered with pounded charcoal. After trimming the roots dipped in smetanopodobnuyu mash consisting of clay with admixture phosphobacterin and 10% of fresh mullein. Phosphobacterin (3 tablets) is dissolved in 500 ml of water and poured into 9.5 liters talkers.
If there is no talker in mullein IAA was added (1 tablet (100 mg) in a 10 L).
In the absence of phosphobacterin 2-3 weeks after planting roses fed fresh mullein. Mullein but does not replace the full phosphobacterin, instead of which you can use potassium humate Watering plants (solution concentration: 2 g per 10 liters of water - in the first half of the summer, and 4 g per 10 liters of water - in the second half of the summer). Adults rose bushes is recommended to spray 3-4 times per growing season: after bud break, after flowering.
In the application of humic acid salt, as well as other bio-stimulants in plants activates all metabolic processes, improves the digestibility of major nutrients, increased breathing, more intense forms of chlorophyll; plants better tolerate the lack of moisture and low temperatures.
Humates positive impact on agrochemical properties of the soil, activate soil microflora and prevent leaching of nutrients. Ready humates (eg, Potassium humate, Humate + 7, Humate-80, Humate-fertility, etc.) can be purchased in stores. Get their treatment of peat or sapropel alkali.
In nature, a similar product is obtained by decomposing the organic residues (e.g., leaves, grass clippings) with large amounts of moisture; the product is acidic and brown. You can get it on their own, for example, in September of beveled chopped herbs in a tight container (plastic bag). Spring thaw at the bottom gather a few liters of natural stimulant.
When planting seedlings in the spring climbing roses pruned, leaving whatever the class on strong shoots two developed kidney, and weak shoots - one developed kidney. When autumn planting roses do their pruning in the spring, after removing them from the winter shelter.
Depth number of holes at planting roses must be sufficient to contain the free roots of seedlings, with "root collar" climbing rose should be recessed into the soil not less than 10 cm. Such deep planting makes it possible to protect the good "root collar" from the cold. At this depth, under artificial shelter soil temperature in winter does not fall below -2 degrees. In addition, when zaglublÑ‘nnoy landing on own-rooted roses to bury part of the shoots produced more active roots.
Lowering seedling roses in the landing pit, straighten the roots and covered them with earth, leaving no voids between the roots. When the pit is filled to the level of the soil, the soil around the rose bush crimped foot. Own-rooted roses I watered after planting a mixture of IAA and phosphobacterin (on a tablet per 10 liters of water), and in their absence - humates.
With spring planting roses covered with sheets of plastic film, which is set under the humid and warm climate. This contributes to the rapid restoration of the plant root system and its good growth in the future. Two weeks after planting rose bushes gradually remove the film. If planted rose plants are not many and they are small, instead of film every bush can be concealed with a plastic bottle, pre-cut at the bottom of it and unscrewing the plug for ventilation.